Tag Archives: bilingualism
Prefixes and Suffixes
They are small elements that we insert in the beginning or at the end of a base word
Como ajudar um aluno de 2ª Língua em sala de aula.
Aprender em um segundo idioma pode ser desafiador, mas como o professor pode fazer uma grande diferença. Veja um resumo das principais ideias.
1- A linguagem é mais do que vocabulário, gramática e ortografia. É moldado por discursos, convenções de gênero e contexto.
2- Os estudantes precisam controlar tanto o registro interpessoal cotidiano quanto o registro acadêmico mais formal para obter sucesso na escola.
3- Os alunos de idiomas virão de várias circunstâncias com uma variedade de recursos, por isso, não faça suposições sobre suas necessidades.
4- Não o deixe em osmose – planeje o aprendizado de idiomas, bem como o aprendizado do currículo.
5- Mantenha o foco em fazer sentido, não em correção.
Incentivar a repetição, reciclagem e redundância.
Use recursos visuais e gestos para apoiar os alunos de idiomas.
6- Em seus recursos de conversação e sala de aula, busque “mais compreensibilidatde”.
7- Receba as primeiras línguas dos seus alunos na sala de aula.
8- Planeje diferentes espaços e atividades para diferentes tipos de conversa.
9- Dê aos alunos de idiomas um pouco mais de tempo de espera.
10- Entenda as demandas específicas de idioma da sua área de currículo.
11- Construa o ciclo de gênero em seu planejamento de aula.
12- Deixe os alunos entrarem no mundo das convenções de gênero.
13- Use o feedback sobre o trabalho dos alunos como uma oportunidade para o aprendizado de idiomas.
15- Observe como os alunos de sua língua estão progredindo e planeje o próximo estágio.
© Universidade de Glasgow
Learning in a second language can be challenging, but a language-aware teacher can make a big difference. Here’s a summary of the main ideas.
- Language is more than vocabulary, grammar and spelling. It is shaped by discourses, genre conventions and context.
- Students need control of both the everyday interpersonal register and the more formal academic register to succeed in school.
- Language learners will come from a variety of circumstances with a variety of resources, so don’t make assumptions about their needs.
- Don’t leave it to osmosis – plan for language learning as well as curriculum learning.
- Keep the focus on making meaning, not on correctness.
- Encourage repetition, recycling and redundancy.
- Use visuals and gestures to support language learners.
- In your talk and classroom resources, aim for ‘comprehensibility plus’.
- Welcome your students’ first languages into the classroom.
- Plan different spaces and activities for different types of talk.
- Give language learners a bit more wait time.
- Understand the particular language demands of your curriculum area.
- Build the genre cycle into your lesson planning.
- Let students into the secrets of genre conventions.
- Use feedback on students’ work as an opportunity for language learning.
- Observe how your language learners are progressing, and plan for the next stage.
© University of Glasgow
Food for Thought
Frases ou dizeres para nos levar a pensar.
“A ship is safe in harbor, but that’s not what ships are for.”
John A. Shedd
“Courage is found in unlikely places.”
“You may not always have a comfortable life and you will not always be able to solve all of the world’s problems at once but don’t ever underestimate the importance you can have because history has shown us that courage can be contagious and hope can take on a life of its own.”
“Courage is what it takes to stand up and speak; courage is also what it takes to sit down and listen.”
“Since it is so likely that children will meet cruel enemies let them at least have heard of brave knights and heroic courage.”
“Never bend your head. Always hold it high. Look the world straight in the eye.”
“Courage does not always roar. Sometimes courage is the quiet voice at the end of the day saying, ‘I will try again tomorrow.”
Mary Anne Radmacher
How can we provide challenge for a child who is learning English
- Children can really learn a language if they are playing.
- Never force a child to speak, they will when they are ready.
- Children learn best when they are interested in something.
- Children pick up languages best if there is a context and reason to use it.
Young children learn through their senses with a trial and error approach. While gradually learning boundaries and expectations is important, it is totally normal for very young children not to behave in the way that an adult expects. By observing children and really tuning into their interests, we can plan activities and experiences that are age-appropriate and engaging. When children are engaged in motivating and meaningful activities, their ‘behaviour’ is less of an issue.
When we assess a young child, we are asking ourselves “What do my observations tell me about this child?”Assessment is about analysing our observations and understanding the potential of each child.
When a child learns something new or develops a new skill, we often call this a ‘magic’ or a ‘wow’ moment. Observation and really knowing the child are key to recognising these developmental milestones. We can plan the next steps for a child’s learning after we have observed a developmental milestone.
All young children are learning something, and assessment in early childhood means analysing what a child can do. Comparing a child to his or her classmates is not useful, as it doesn’t tell us anything about what individual progress a child has made (what they knew or could do before, what they know and can do now). Assessment in early childhood is about helping children move forward in their learning and development, and labelling a child ‘intelligent’ doesn’t help them make progress in any way. To give a child confidence, it is more useful to comment on a specific thing they have done well, rather than give them a generic label.
Children should be assessed in a genuine situation rather than through a contrived, adult-led test. Asking a child to count is not a reliable way of gathering information, as the child may become anxious when asked to ‘perform’, may not understand why they are being asked to count, or may not feel confident enough to share what they can do, even though they actually do know how to count. By observing the children while they are playing, the teacher sees that, as well as being able to count to five, the child also knows the colours blue and pink. Had the focus of the assessment just been on counting, the teacher might have missed this.
Spending time with children, and observing what they know and can do, will help you provide the right amount of challenge and support. For a child who is learning English, this could be knowing their favourite story or song and encouraging them to join in with key refrains, observing that they understand the words for different toys in English and encouraging them to say some of these words, or modelling key language associated with a particular activity.
© British Council
Supporting and extending language development
Through interactions we can support and extend a child’s learning and development, particularly in the area of communication and language.
Apart from building an emotional connection with the child through interactions, children benefit from hearing lots of talk, conversations and words. In 2012, Associate Professor at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, Meredith Rowe, carried out a study which looked at what contributes most to a child’s later vocabulary development. She found that:
- children’s vocabulary at 30 months was influenced by the quantity of words parents used one year earlier,
- their vocabulary at 42 months was influenced by parents’ use of a variety of sophisticated words one year earlier,
- their vocabulary at 54 months was influenced by parents’ use of narratives and explanations one year earlier.
Adults can interact by talking, listening and responding to the child.
Even if a child is not yet able to communicate verbally, the adult can contribute to the exchange using language. For example:
The child grizzles because he is feeling hungry.
Adult: I can see you’re upset. Would you like some milk?
The child rubs her eyes.
Adult: You look sleepy. I think it’s time for a nap.
The child flaps her arms excitedly.
Adult: I know you like that song! It goes la, la, la, la!
Child squeals in delight.
By showing genuine interest in the child and adding interest to what the child has offered, we are building trust, communication, and developing the child’s language skills all at the same time.
We can support and extend a child’s language development, just by being with them and interacting in a natural way.
© British Council
As Novas Palavras Criadas em Inglês na Atualidade
Cat café’ and other words added to OxfordDictionaries.com
NBD, but are you ready to fangirl over our dictionary update? Abso-bloody-lutely. We’ve got some awesomesauce new words – no, rly – that will inform and entertain whether you’re hangry or it’s already wine o’clock. Mic drop.
Mic drops, awesomesauce, manspreading, and more
Let’s pick that mic up again and check out some of the words that have been added to OxfordDictionaries.com in the world of informal language. The mic drop in question can be a literal ‘instance of deliberately dropping or tossing aside one’s microphone at the end of a performance or speech one considers to have been particularly impressive’, but it’s more likely to be figurative – or an exclamation to emphasize a particularly impressive point: Nuff said. Mic drop.
If you want to describe something as excellent, you can use awesomesauce; on the other side of the coin, anything of a poor or disappointing standard is weak sauce. Weak sauce came first, and has a more comprehensible origin as a metaphor; an inadequate sauce would certainly let down an otherwise decent meal. Though awesomesauce clearly comes from the words awesome and sauce, the former is currently beating the latter in the Oxford English Corpus and Oxford Twitter Corpus.
Why say banter (‘playfully teasing or mocking remarks exchanged with another person or group’) when you can save a syllable with bants? (Be careful where you use it, though; the term might be recognized in the UK, but is likely to get bemused looks elsewhere.) And, speaking of brevity, the initialism NBDcan take the place of no big deal, while rly is handy textspeak for really. SJW stands for social justice warrior, which is also added in this update. It’s ‘a person who expresses or promotes socially progressive views’, but the word is used derogatively, usually by those who do not share these views.
You may remember mansplain from last year’s update. It’s now joined by the noun manspreading: ‘the practice whereby a man, especially one travelling on public transport, adopts a sitting position with his legs wide apart, in such a way as to encroach on an adjacent seat or seats’. If you’re a gentleman reading this on the bus … can we suggest you arrange your legs considerately? Rly.
Manic pixie dream girl has been added from the world of film criticism: find out more in our video post.
Other informal terms in this update include brain fart, bitch face, bruh, butthurt, fur baby, MacGyver, mkay, rando, and swole.
Mx, Grexit, and other words in the news
Among the additions in the August update, there are those that relate to recent news and events. The blends Brexit (British/Britain + exit) and Grexit (Greek/Greece + exit) were coined in 2012, relating to potential departures of the United Kingdom from the European Union and Greece from the eurozone (those countries which use the euro as their national currency).
The honorific Mx has also been added to OxfordDictionaries.com. It’s used (in the same way as Mr, Miss, Mrs, Ms etc.) before a person’s surname or full name as a gender-neutral title. Katherine Martin, Head of US Dictionaries, recently spoke with the New York Times about the rising popularity of the term, which is first found in the late 1970s and has gained significant traction since.
Some fanciful words relating to food and drink are also included in the August update. Beer o’clock and wine o’clock are humorous terms for the (supposedly) appropriate times of day for having your first glass of either drink. You might need to start the meal earlier if you’re feeling hangry: a blend of hungry and angry, meaning ‘bad-tempered or irritable as a result of hunger’. Anything snackable will come in handy.
English often forms new words using existing suffixes, and the realm of food and drink shows several such innovations. From the –y ending comes cheffy (relating to, or characteristic of, a chef) and melty (melting or partially melted); from the –ery ending, we get cidery (a place where cider is made) and cupcakery (a bakery that specializes in cupcakes). The latter is a venue where you’re unlikely to have the option of cakeage, which is ‘a charge made by a restaurant for serving a cake that they have not supplied themselves’, and another word created by the inclusion of a common suffix. The word is modelled on the pattern of corkage, where the same rule applies to wine. And if you can’t bring yourself to have the finest things in life separately, there is now the option of a cat café, where café patrons can eat while surrounded by feline friends.
Edible additions to OxfordDictionaries.comfrom Australian English include Anzac biscuit, barmaid’s blush (typically red wine mixed with lemonade or beer mixed with raspberry cordial), battered sav (battered saveloy sausage), and lolly cake (a cake containing sweets, known generically as lollies in Australian and New Zealand English).
Gaming and the Internet
Whether you’re a Redditor, a YouTuber, or more used to handling physical meeples(playing pieces in certain board games), this update has terms that’ll come in handy. Some don’t show the finer side of the human character: rage-quit is a verb meaning to ‘angrily abandon an activity or pursuit that has become frustrating’, and is especially used in relation to video games.
One reason you might rage-quit is because you are being pwned: that is, utterly defeated by an opponent. This informal term is used more often in video gaming, and supposedly resulted from a common mistyping of own with this sense, as a result of the proximity of p and o on a computer keyboard. Along with pwn comes pwnage(and ownage), being ‘the action or fact of utterly defeating an opponent or rival’.
A Redditor is a registered user of the website Reddit; the word is formed on the pattern of editor, and the site relies upon user-submitted content, posted in subreddits(forums dedicated to specific topics). Users might well post content that they consider glanceable, shareable, and even snackable – which can refer to online content designed to be read or viewed quickly, as well as to food.
Other additions from the sphere of technology and the Internet include spear phishing (‘the fraudulent practice of sending emails ostensibly from a known or trusted sender in order to induce targeted individuals to reveal confidential information’), and blockchain (‘a digital ledger in which transactions made in bitcoin or another cryptocurrency are recorded chronologically and publicly’). Nor are mobile phones left out: butt-dial and pocket-dialhave been added, denoting that awkward moment when you dial someone’s number by mistake while your phone is in your pocket.
O Futuro da Língua Inglesa
The future of English
All languages change and evolve over time – some have periods of expansion and decline and some eventually die, while new languages emerge. English has a particularly long and interesting history of development and change.
The English we use today bears little resemblance to the English of Shakespeare and even less to that of Chaucer in the 14th century. Similarly, there are significant differences between the varieties of English used in different parts of the world and by different groups of users within and between societies. Arguably, the pace of change has sped up in the last fifty or so years, partly because of technological innovations and partly because of increased mobility and migration between social and cultural groups.
It is difficult to predict the future of English, as Professor David Crystal said, we could all be speaking Martian in the future. In his talk on the future of English, as a global language, Crystal explains that language becomes global for one reason only – the power of the people who speak it. As Crystal says, “Power always drives language. English will remain a global power if certain things happen to maintain the power of the nations who speak it.”
Both Crystal and other linguists envisage scenarios where languages other than English will become the future dominant global language such as Arabic, Spanish, Chinese. It is already the case that while English remains the most used language of the internet, the proportion of English used has significantly been replaced by a wide range of other languages as can be seen in these figures:
Languages used on the internet from Graddol 2006:4 – 2000 data from Global Reach, 2005 from Miniwatts International Ltd) (Cl
A importância da pronúncia na comunicação de sucesso.
Por quê eu não consigo aprender Inglês?
Muitas alunos me perguntam por que têm tanta dificuldade em aprender inglês. Eu sempre respondo que, a professora é só um dos meios de aprendizagem. Se não houver engajamento do aluno em estudar, ler, escutar músicas, assistir séries, conversar com nativos, esse aprendizado será mais difícil.
Segue um texto com excelente explicação sobre esse tema. Não deixem de ler.
A lista abaixo resume como o envolvimento com o idioma pode ser observado. Lembre-se de que os alunos também podem se engajar em maneiras que não são observáveis e, inversamente, podem fingir estar engajados para satisfazer o professor.
Critérios para identificar o envolvimento com a linguagem (EWL) (Svalberg, 2012: 378, adaptado de Svalberg 2009: 247)
Quão alerta é o aluno?
O aluno parece enérgico ou letárgico?
Ele parece notar os recursos de linguagem / interação?
A atenção do aluno está na linguagem (como objeto ou meio) ou não?
A mente do aprendiz parece vagar?
Quão reflexivo? Quão crítico / analítico?
O raciocínio do aprendiz é indutivo ou baseado em memória / imitação?
O aluno percebe e reflete ou simplesmente reage?
Com relação à língua-alvo, o aluno compara, faz perguntas, infere / tira conclusões?
Quão disposto é o aluno a se envolver com a linguagem?
O aluno é retirado ou ansioso para participar?
O aluno parece entediado ou não focado na tarefa, ou estar focado?
O comportamento do aluno é dependente ou independente?
Interage, verbalmente ou de outra forma, com os outros para aprender?
Como apoiar os outros?
por exemplo. por comportamentos verbais ou outros?
O aluno se envolve em negociação e andaimes?
Líder ou seguidor?
As interações do aluno são reativas ou iniciadas?
© Universidade de Leicester
How engagement with language might be observed
The list below summarizes how engagement with language might be observed. Remember that learners may also engage in ways that are not observable, and conversely they can pretend to be engaged in order to satisfy the teacher.
Criteria for identifying engagement with language (EWL) (Svalberg, 2012: 378, adapted from Svalberg 2009: 247)
How alert is the learner?
- Does the learner seem energetic or lethargic?
- Does he or she seem to notice language/interaction features?
- Is the learner’s attention on the language (as object or medium) or not?
- Does the learner’s mind seem to wander?
How reflective?; How critical/analytical?
- Is the learner’s reasoning inductive or memory/imitation based?
- Does the learner notice and reflect, or simply react?
- With regard to the target language, does the learner compare, ask questions, infer/ draw conclusions?
How willing is the learner to engage with language?
- Is the learner withdrawn or eager to participate?
- Does the learner seem bored or not focused on the task, or to be focused?
Is the learner’s behaviour dependent or independent?
- Does he or she interact, verbally or otherwise, with others to learn?
How supportive of others?
- e.g. by verbal or other behaviours?
- Does the learner engage in negotiation and scaffolding?
Leader or follower?
- Are the learner’s interactions reactive or initiating?
© University of Leicester