A História do Halloween 🎃

História do Halloween

Halloween cai em 31 de outubro de cada ano na América do Norte e em outras partes do mundo. O que você sabe sobre Halloween? Você celebra isso em seu país? Aqui está um pouco de história sobre isso.

Como muitos outros feriados, Halloween evoluiu e mudou ao longo da história. Há mais de 2.000 anos, as pessoas chamadas celtas viviam no que é agora a Irlanda, o Reino Unido e partes do norte da França. 1 de novembro foi seu dia de ano novo. Eles acreditavam que a noite anterior ao Ano Novo (31 de outubro) era uma época em que os vivos e os mortos se juntaram.

Há mais de mil anos, a igreja cristã recebeu o primeiro dia de todos os santos (também chamado de All Hallows). Este foi um dia santo especial para honrar os santos e outras pessoas que morreram por sua religião. Na noite anterior, All Hallows foi chamado Hallows Eve. Mais tarde, o nome foi alterado para Halloween.

Como os celtas, os europeus da época também acreditavam que os espíritos dos mortos visitariam a Terra no Dia das Bruxas. Eles estavam preocupados com o fato de espíritos malignos causar problemas ou machucá-los. Então naquela noite as pessoas usavam figurinos que pareciam fantasmas ou outras criaturas malignas. Eles pensavam que se eles se vestiam assim, os espíritos pensariam que também estavam mortos e não os prejudicavam.

A tradição do Halloween foi levada para a América pelos europeus imigrantes. Entretanto, algumas das tradições mudaram um pouco. Por exemplo, no Halloween na Europa, algumas pessoas levariam lanternas feitas de nabos. Na América, as abóboras eram mais comuns. Então as pessoas começaram a colocar velas dentro deles e usá-las como lanternas. É por isso que você vê Jack ‘o lanterns hoje.

Hoje em dia Halloween não é geralmente considerado um feriado religioso. É principalmente um dia divertido para crianças. As crianças se vestiram de fantasias como as pessoas faziam mil anos atrás. Mas em vez de se preocuparem com espíritos malignos, eles vão de casa em casa. Eles tocam nas portas e dizem “doçura ou travessura”. O proprietário de cada casa dá doces ou algo especial para cada truque ou treater.

Feliz Dia das Bruxas!

Fonte: http://www.5minuteenglish.com/oct29.htm

History of Halloween

🎃

Halloween falls on October 31st each year in North America and other parts of the world. What do you know about Halloween? Do you celebrate it in your country? Here is a little history about it.

Vocabulary

to evolve (v)– to change little by little

spirit (n)– ghost, some people believe the spirit and body separate when a person dies

holy (adj)– sacred, very good, related to religion. Hallow comes from the word holy.

saint (n)– an honored, holy person

evil (adj)– very, very bad

lantern (n)– lamp or enclosed light that can be carried around

turnip (n)– a purple and white vegetable that grows in the ground

Like many other holidays, Halloween has evolved and changed throughout history. Over 2,000 years ago people called the Celts lived in what is now Ireland, the UK, and parts of Northern France. November 1 was their New Year’s Day. They believed that the night before the New Year (October 31) was a time when the living and the dead came together.

More than a thousand years ago the Christian church named November 1 All Saints Day (also called All Hallows.) This was a special holy day to honor the saints and other people who died for their religion. The night before All Hallows was called Hallows Eve. Later the name was changed to Halloween.

Like the Celts, the Europeans of that time also believed that the spirits of the dead would visit the earth on Halloween. They worried that evil spirits would cause problems or hurt them. So on that night people wore costumes that looked like ghosts or other evil creatures. They thought if they dressed like that, the spirits would think they were also dead and not harm them.

The tradition of Halloween was carried to America by the immigrating Europeans. Some of the traditions changed a little, though. For example, on Halloween in Europe some people would carry lanterns made from turnips. In America, pumpkins were more common. So people began putting candles inside them and using them as lanterns. That is why you see Jack ‘o lanterns today.

These days Halloween is not usually considered a religious holiday. It is primarily a fun day for children. Children dress up in costumes like people did a thousand years ago. But instead of worrying about evil spirits, they go from house to house. They knock on doors and say “trick or treat.” The owner of each house gives candy or something special to each trick or treater.

Happy Halloween!

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Aprendendo Inglês na Terceira Idade

There are many benefits of studying for older learners, such as increased self-confidence, increased feelings of health and well-being, reduced feelings of isolation, and increased engagement in the community. 

Many seniors wish to study a foreign language and there is now substantial evidence that they can learn a new language effectively. My experience is that senior learners are excellent language students for a number of reasons.

Life experience

Senior students have a wealth of life experience and when they bring this to the classroom they enrich the learning experience of the whole class. Our teachers comment that older learners are excellent students to have in the classroom as they are always happy to talk about their experiences and give their opinions on a wide range of topics.

Great motivation

Senior learners do not normally need a certificate, diploma or university credit; their motivation is intrinsic. They may study for intellectual enjoyment, to socialise with their peers or because it is something they have always wanted to do. In fact, senior learners are very often more highly motivated than younger learners. Their high level of motivation is a great advantage as this has been identified as one of the most important factors in determining successful language learning. The motivation of senior learners is reflected by the fact that they rarely miss a class, participate very actively in the classroom and always do their homework.

Social element

We have discovered that there is a strong social component in seniors attending English classes. They often attend class to mix with their peers, forming very strong friendships and socialising together after the class and even in their free time.

Attitude

Our experience is that senior learners have an extremely positive attitude toward language learning and life in general. They treat both their teachers and their classmates with the utmost respect and politeness. Our teachers often comment on how kind, considerate, and hardworking senior learners are, and what a pleasure they are to teach.

So our experience is that the life experience, motivation to learn, and positive attitude of senior learners provide them with many advantages as language learners. However, there are cognitive, affective and physiological factors which can affect senior language learning. We are going to identify these factors and then look at how you can adapt your courses and practices to meet the needs of older learners.

Helping students hear

Hearing loss may have a direct impact on learning and performance for senior learners. In order to decrease the negative effects of this auditory loss, teachers should try to accommodate the aging ear in a number of ways by:

• speaking clearly and ensuring that the students can see their face and lips.

• adjusting the volume for listenings and videos.

• repeating listening texts.

• using short films and videos which aid listening comprehension as students can see the face and lips of the speakers.

• ensuring that your classrooms have little background noise.

Helping students see

Defective vision increases dramatically as people age. Visual ability is particularly important in education as it is generally accepted that approximately 80% of all learning occurs through vision. To accommodate this loss in vision, here are some steps to follow:

• Use a larger print type for printed text.

• Make sure that senior students sit as close to the board as possible.

• Write very clearly on the board.

• Ensure that classrooms have a lot of natural light and that there is direct lighting for the whiteboard.

Mobility

As people age the body tends to lose some strength, flexibility and mobility. They may also suffer from arthritis and rheumatism. These changes may make it difficult for older learners to move around the classroom. To compensate for these changes we recommend doing the following things:

• Ensure that older learners have comfortable chairs and tables.

• Allow more time for older students to do whole class communicative activities where students have to stand up and move around the classroom.

Memory

Research indicates that cognitive development, recall, and problem solving may show decline with aging. In order to overcome this cognitive decline which may make it more difficult to learn a new language, teachers can help seniors develop and maintain their cognitive ability in a number of ways:

• Integrate memory exercises into classes. Use visual and auditory mnemonic devices, examples and memory associations to help seniors rehearse and later retrieve vocabulary and expressions from long-term memory.

• Systematically repeat and recycle grammar, vocabulary and expressions.

• Encourage students to draw on their wealth of experiences and to use cognitive strategies they have used successfully in the past in their current language learning environment.

• Allow more time for students to produce language without being interrupted.

Building confidence / Reducing stress

Many older learners fear failure and are more anxious than younger learners, perhaps this is because they accept the stereotype of the older learner as a poor language learner or because of previous unsuccessful attempts to learn a foreign language. Older learners need to feel comfortable and trust the teacher and the other students before they participate fully in the language classroom. A key role of the teacher is to reduce anxiety and build trust and self-confidence in the senior learner.

Here are some of the things teachers can do to reduce stress and build self-confidence in older adult learners:

• Find out what our older learners’ motivations are for learning a language and adjust our methodology accordingly.

• Use humanistic techniques to build empathy between the teacher and students, and among the students.

• Reduce the focus on error correction to build learners’ self-confidence and to promote language production.

• Avoid timed tests which may make senior learners anxious.

• Give senior students more time to complete activities.

• Promote a friendly and relaxed atmosphere in the classroom.

My experience is that any difficulties which senior learners may experience in the language classroom can be overcome through adjustments to the learning environment and material, attention to physical, affective and cognitive factors, and the use of an effective teaching methodology which focuses on the learning process rather than academic achievement.

Kieran Donaghy is teacher at UAB Idiomes, Barcelona. He is also the creator of http://film-english.com/, an award-winning website providing free resources for teachers wishing to use video effectively in their classrooms. 

Author:

Kieran Donaghy

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Mensagem a todos os Mestres em seu dia

Teachers Day Wishes 🍎

• The best teachers don’t give you the answer, they spark within you the desire to find the answer yourself. Happy Teachers Day!

• I am grateful to be your student. Thank you for challenging me to be my best and instilling in me a passion for learning. Happy Teachers Day!

• My child’s future is so much brighter because of you. Thank you for being an outstanding teacher. Best wishes for Teachers Day.

• Keep calm and study on. Happy Teachers’ Day!

• You deserve recognition for all the sacrifices that you make, you are more than a teacher to me and I THANK YOU!

• Today I celebrate you for being selfless, devoted, hardworking, and the wisest person in the classroom. I am grateful to be your student. Happy Teacher’s Day!

• Wishing you joy and happiness, you are an amazing teacher, and you only deserve the best.

• You are the spark, the inspiration, the guide, the candle to my life. I am deeply thankful that you are my teacher.

🎉🎁💝🎈💕😃🎂🍎

Em Português

Mensagens do dia dos professores

• Os melhores professores não lhe dão a resposta, eles despertam em você o desejo de encontrar a resposta você mesmo. Feliz Dia dos professores!

• Sou grato por ser seu aluno. Obrigado por me desafiar a ser o meu melhor e instilar em mim uma paixão por aprender. Feliz Dia dos professores!

• O futuro do meu filho é muito mais brilhante por você. Obrigado por ser um excelente professor. Os melhores desejos para o Dia dos Professores.

• Mantenha a calma e estude. Feliz Dia dos professores!

• Você merece reconhecimento por todos os sacrifícios que você faz, você é mais do que um professor e EU TE OBRIGADO!

• Hoje eu o celebrei por ser abnegado, dedicado, trabalhador e a pessoa mais sábia na sala de aula. Sou grato por ser seu aluno. Feliz Dia dos professores!

• Desejando-lhe alegria e felicidade, você é um professor incrível, e você merece o melhor.

• Você é a faísca, a inspiração, o guia, a vela para minha vida. Estou profundamente grato por você ser minha professora.

Como relaxar e manter a paz interior

1. Take a nature walk.

Studies have shown that getting outside in nature improves well-being, and you can also gain perspective from spring’s visual cues. For example, in fall, the changing leaves are a reminder of impermanence—just as they change colors and fall from the trees, so will whatever is stressing you out. Be the tree and let what is temporary fall away.

2. Focus on small tasks.

Practice mindfulness as you complete the smaller things on your list—housework, paperwork, yard work. Focus fully on what you are doing right here, right now, checking in with all your senses as you do your tasks. If your thoughts wander to something bigger looming in the future, gently guide your mind back to the task at hand. By staying in the present moment, you stop giving importance and attention to your past or future worries.

3. Watch or read something silly.

Entertainment is more than an escape. Studies have shown that laughter reduces the release of stress hormones in your body. Catch a silly movie, or read the latest book from your favorite funny guy or gal.

4. Sing (really).

Studies have found that singing has a positive impact on affect and anxiety, and may even reduce depression. So turn up the music and sing along or gather some friends for karaoke—if nothing else, it will make you laugh (see tip 3).

5. Try a basic breath practice meditation.

This session from Meditation Studio teacher Elisha Goldstein invites you to do nothing but watch your breath, which eventually makes it easier for you to focus on other tasks in your everyday life (without stressing). During this practice, it’s completely OK if you find yourself thinking about other things—just stay with your breath. “If all you did was notice your mind going off when it was wandering and gently brought it back over and over again,” Goldstein says, “your time would be well-spent

Source: https://www.yogajournal.com/guided-meditation-audio/meditation-studio-5-ways-to-beat-stress-this-fall?utm_source=newsletter&utm_medium=email&utm_content=story1_title&utm_campaign=Wisdom_10022017

Em Português

1. Faça uma caminhada pela natureza.

Estudos demonstraram que ficar afastado na natureza melhora o bem-estar, e você também pode obter uma perspectiva das sugestões visuais da primavera. Por exemplo, no outono, as folhas que mudam são uma lembrança da impermanência – assim como eles mudam de cores e caem das árvores, assim como tudo o que forçá-lo a sair. Seja a árvore e deixe o que é temporário cair.

2. Concentre-se em pequenas tarefas.

Pratique a atenção plena ao completar as coisas menores na sua lista de tarefas domésticas, papelada, trabalho de quintal. Concentre-se totalmente no que você está fazendo aqui mesmo, agora mesmo, checando com todos os seus sentidos enquanto faz suas tarefas. Se seus pensamentos vagarem para algo maior que se aproxima no futuro, leve sua mente de volta à tarefa em questão. Ao permanecer no momento presente, você deixa de dar importância e atenção às suas preocupações passadas ou futuras.

3. Assista ou leia algo bobo.

O entretenimento é mais do que uma fuga. Estudos demonstraram que o riso reduz a liberação de hormônios do estresse em seu corpo. Pegue um filme bobo, ou leia o último livro de seu cara engraçado ou galão favorito.

4. Cante (realmente).

Estudos descobriram que o canto tem um impacto positivo sobre o afeto e a ansiedade e pode até reduzir a depressão. Então, aumente a música e cante ou colecione alguns amigos para karaokê – se nada mais, isso fará você rir (veja a dica 3).

5. Experimente uma meditação básica de respiração.

Esta sessão da professora de Meditação Studio, Elisha Goldstein, convida você a fazer nada além de assistir sua respiração, o que eventualmente torna mais fácil para você se concentrar em outras tarefas em sua vida cotidiana (sem estressar). Durante esta prática, é completamente bom se você se achar pensando em outras coisas – fique com a respiração. “Se tudo o que você fez foi notar sua mente desaparecendo quando estava vagando e gentilmente trouxe de volta uma e outra vez”, diz Goldstein, “seu tempo seria bem gasto

Fonte: https://www.yogajournal.com/guided-meditation-audio/meditation-studio-5-ways-to-beat-stress-this-fall?utm_source=newsletter&utm_medium=email&utm_content=story1_title&utm_campaign=Wisdom_10022017

Um Pouco de Sabedoria por Diana Princesa de Gales.

Little Bit of Wisdom …

… from Diana, Princess of Wales

“Carry out a random act of kindness with no expectation of reward, safe in the knowledge that one day someone might do the same for you.”

“Family is the most important thing in the world.”

“I think the biggest disease the world suffers from in this day and age is the disease of people feeling unloved. I know that I can give love for a minute, for half an hour, for a day, for a month, but I can give.”

“Everyone of us needs to show how much we care for each other and, in the process, care for ourselves.”

“I want my boys to have an understanding of people’s emotions, their insecurities, people’s distress, and their hopes and dreams.”

“Hugs can do great amounts of good – especially for children.”

Source: editor@activityvillage.co.uk

Em português

Um Pouco de sabedoria …

… de Diana, princesa de Gales

“Realize um ato aleatório de bondade sem expectativa de recompensa, sabendo que um dia alguém pode fazer o mesmo por você”.

“A família é a coisa mais importante do mundo”.

“Acho que a maior doença que o mundo sofre neste dia e idade é a doença das pessoas que se sentem amadas. Eu sei que posso dar amor por um minuto, por meia hora, por um dia, por um mês, mas posso dar.”

“Todos nós precisamos mostrar o quanto nos cuidamos e, no processo, nos cuidamos”.

“Eu quero que meus meninos tenham uma compreensão das emoções das pessoas, suas inseguranças, angústia das pessoas e suas esperanças e sonhos”.

“Os abraços podem fazer grandes quantidades de bem – especialmente para crianças”.

Fonte: editor@activityvillage.co.uk

Shakespeare invented new words

Shakespeare 3

Nobody knows exactly how many words in the English we use everyday were invented by Shakespeare.

Some people have claimed that Shakespeare invented many thousands of words but a more generally accepted figure is 1,700.

As this National Geographic article explains, Shakespeare may have been the first person to use some words in writing or to popularise their use. Whether he ‘invented’ the words or not, he has certainly had a profound effect on English vocabulary.

Here are some of the words and phrases usually attributed to Shakespeare..

  • bedroom
  • blanket
  • fashionable
  • freezing
  • gossip
  • hostile
  • ladybird
  • lonely
  • manager
  • obscene
  • priceless
  • puke
  • undress
  • unreal
  • watchdog
  • pomp and circumstance
  • the be-all and end-all
  • flesh and blood

An internet search for ‘words invented by Shakespeare’ will bring up many thousands of results. Do a search and see which other words you can find to add to the list.

Watch this video: https://www.futurelearn.com/courses/explore-english-shakespeare/1/steps/59163?utm_campaign=Share+Links&utm_medium=futurelearn-open_step&utm_source=google-plus

© British Council

Inglês- Intensivo de Férias

Você está precisando desenferrujar seu Inglês? Vai fazer alguma viagem pro exterior? Precisa tirar aquele diploma que vai melhorar sua carreira? Criança de férias sem ter o que fazer? Anuncio Paula Lyra ELT School

Então porque não aproveitar o período para estudar Inglês!

Fale comigo, pois tenho aulas individuais e customizadas para atender à sua necessidade específica. Atividades dinâmicas com vídeo, áudio e jogos que ajudam a memorização e aprendizado da língua.

Não deixe passar mais tempo, coloque essa meta para 2015 edscn04171.jpg invista no Inglês agora!

Final da Colônia de Férias

Nossos projetos, brincadeiras, teatro, cinema e jogos chegaram ao fim.
Tivemos uma temporada muito proveitosa e aprendemos sobre ecossistemas, brincamos com fantoches, jogamos games, assistimos a um vídeo e comemos pipoca.
Gostaria de agradecer a todos pela presença e aos amigos novos que apareceram e
que nos alegraram mais ainda nas aulas.
Agora temos um novo semestre pela frente com mais atividades e conquistas.
E vamos em frente.

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In English
Our projects,, theater, film and games come to an end.
We had a very fruitful season and learned about ecosystems, played with puppets, with games, watched a video and ate popcorn.
I would like to thank everyone for coming, especially the new friends who came and cheered our classes even more.
Now we have a new semester ahead with more activities and achievements.
And let’s move on.