Palavras que te ajudam na hora de comprar em shoppings ou butiques.
Vocabulário sobre Aeroporto #english #englishteacher #ingles
Olá, alunos e amigos,
Seguem alguns fatos interessantes sobre casamento.
Love and Marriage …
Some thoughts on love and marriage from the younger generation.
What exactly is marriage?
“Marriage is when you get to keep your girl and don’t have to give her back
to her parents!”
Is it better to be single or married?
“It gives me a headache to think about that stuff. I’m just a kid. I don’t
need that kind of trouble.”
Love is the most important thing in the world, but baseball is pretty good
Why do newlyweds hold hands?
They want to make sure their rings don’t fall off because they paid good
money for them.”
What about kissing?
If it’s your mother, you can kiss her anytime. But if it’s a new person,
you have to ask permission.
What are the secrets of a long, happy marriage?
Don’t forget your wife’s name … That will mess up the love.
How can you tell whether a couple is married?
You might have to guess, based on whether they seem to be yelling at the same kids.
Quais são as diferenças específicas de aprendizado?
Vários termos são usados para descrever alunos com dificuldades de aprendizagem em diferentes partes do mundo. Neste breve artigo, mostramos algumas das maneiras pelas quais as dificuldades de aprendizagem são agrupadas e definidas no Reino Unido e nos Estados Unidos da América.
No passado, as dificuldades de aprendizagem foram classificadas em sub-tipos distintos, tais como:
“Dislexia” ou “deficiência de leitura”
“Disgrafia” ou “incapacidade de escrever”
“Discalculia” ou “incapacidade de aprendizagem matemática”
«Dispraxia» ou «Transtorno de coordenação do desenvolvimento» (dificuldades de coordenação de movimentos)
Estes sub-tipos de dificuldades de aprendizagem representaram diferentes áreas do desempenho acadêmico que também influenciam a vida das pessoas fora da escola. Verificou-se, no entanto, que existe uma considerável sobreposição entre estes tipos de dificuldades de aprendizagem. Isso tornou muito difícil diferenciar os vários subtipos de maneira confiável.
A solução proposta no Reino Unido foi agrupar essas várias dificuldades de aprendizagem sob o rótulo de Diferenças de Aprendizagem Específicas. O Departamento de Educação do Grupo de Trabalho no Reino Unido (2005) propôs a seguinte definição:
“Os spLDs têm dificuldades particulares, que podem incluir ortografia, adquirir habilidades fluentes de leitura e redação e / ou manipular números que podem indicar que seu desempenho está bem abaixo de suas habilidades em outras áreas. Eles também podem ter problemas de memória de trabalho, habilidades organizacionais, linguagem receptiva e expressiva ou habilidades orais e auditivas, mantendo a concentração e a coordenação. ”
Essa definição inclui dislexia, dispraxia, discalculia e transtorno de déficit de atenção. A Associação Americana de Psiquiatria tomou uma decisão semelhante no DSM-5 (Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais – American Psychiatric Association, 2013) e agrupou diferentes dificuldades de aprendizagem sob o termo “transtornos de aprendizagem específicos” (SLD).
Estes incluem três subgrupos de desordem:
distúrbio de aprendizagem específico com prejuízo na leitura
O SLD na leitura inclui dificuldades de leitura no nível da palavra (isto é, dislexia) e dificuldades na compreensão da leitura em nível de texto. SLD em matemática é equivalente a discalculia na definição de SpLD utilizada no Reino Unido. O SLD, por escrito, está preocupado com a exatidão ortográfica, precisão gramatical e pontuação e clareza e organização da expressão escrita, e sua contrapartida no Reino Unido é disgrafia.
No DSM-5, o transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (TDAH) é classificado nas doenças do neurodesenvolvimento, juntamente com os Transtornos do Espectro Autista (TEA). TDAH e TEA não pertencem diretamente ao grupo de LLDs, pois seus efeitos impactam áreas mais amplas da vida cotidiana, não apenas aprendendo dentro e fora dos contextos escolares.
Various terms are used to describe students with learning difficulties in different parts of the world. In this brief article we show you some of the ways in which learning difficulties are grouped and defined in the United Kingdom and in the United States of America.
In the past learning difficulties were classified into distinct sub-types such as:
• ‘dyslexia’ or ‘reading disability’
• ‘dysgraphia’ or ‘writing disability’
• ‘dyscalculia’ or ‘mathematics learning disability’
• ‘dyspraxia’ or ‘developmental co-ordination disorder’ (difficulties with co-ordination of movement)
These sub-types of learning difficulties represented different areas of academic achievement which also influence people’s lives outside school. It was found, however, that there is a considerable overlap between these types of learning difficulties. This made it very difficult to differentiate the various sub-types in a reliable manner.
The solution proposed in the United Kingdom was to group these various learning difficulties under the label of Specific Learning Differences. The Department for Education Working Group in the UK (2005) proposed the following definition:
“SpLDs have particular difficulties, which may include spelling, acquiring fluent reading and writing skills and/or manipulating numbers which may indicate their performance is well below their abilities in other areas. They may also have problems with working memory, organisational skills, receptive and expressive language or oral and auditory skills, maintaining concentration and co-ordination.”
This definition includes dyslexia, dyspraxia, dyscalculia and attention deficit disorder. The American Psychiatric Association took a similar decision in DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – American Psychiatric Association, 2013) and grouped different learning difficulties under the umbrella term specific learning disorders (SLD).
These include three subgroups of disorder:
• specific learning disorder with impairment in reading
• written expression
SLD in reading includes word-level reading difficulties (ie dyslexia) and difficulties with text-level reading comprehension. SLD in mathematics is equivalent to dyscalculia in the SpLD definition used in the UK. SLD in writing is concerned with spelling accuracy, grammar and punctuation accuracy and clarity and organisation of written expression, and its counterpart in the UK is dysgraphia.
In DSM-5 attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is classified under neurodevelopmental disorders together with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). ADHD and ASD do not directly belong to the group of SpLDs as their effects impact wider areas of everyday life, not just learning in and outside school contexts.
Essa novela da Rede Globo é uma adaptação do romance famoso “Orgulho e Preconceito ” de Jane Austen, famosa escritora britânica.
Segue abaixo a lista de assuntos que uma mulher desse século deveria estudar para se tornar uma Dana.
(Abaixo segue em inglês)
Características da educação feminina
A educação feminina teria incluído o seguinte:
Leitura (embora os romances fossem uma fonte potencial de perigo – veja a Abadia Northanger de Jane Austen pelos efeitos nocivos de ler muita literatura gótica)
Idiomas – principalmente francês , mas também italiano.
Alguma história e geografia
Música – piano, harpa e canto eram favoritos
Desenho e pintura
Muitas dessas “realizações” permitiram que jovens mulheres demonstrassem qualidades femininas desejáveis: graça, comportamento, elegância, bom gosto, sensibilidade. Valores como piedade religiosa e castidade, modéstia em vez de vaidade, moderação em vez de excesso, submissão obediente e inocência também foram incutidos em mulheres jovens.
Features of female education
Female education would have included the following:
• Reading (although novels were a potential source of danger—see Jane Austen’s Northanger Abbey for the ill effects of reading too much Gothic literature)
• Languages—primarily French, but also Italian
• Some history and geography
• Basic arithmetic
• Music—piano, harp, and singing were favourites
• Drawing and painting
Many of these ‘accomplishments’ allowed young women to demonstrate desirable feminine qualities: grace, deportment, elegance, fine taste, sensibility. Values such as religious piety and chastity, modesty rather than vanity, moderation rather than excess, obedient submission, and innocence were also instilled in young women.
If you want happiness for an hour, take a nap.
If you want happiness for a day, go fishing.
If you want happiness for a year, inherit a fortune.
If you want happiness for a lifetime, help somebody.
A Chinese proverb
(Actually, I’m not sure that this really is a Chinese proverb – but I like it anyway!)
“Most people are about as happy as they make up their minds to be.”
Se você quer felicidade por uma hora, tire uma soneca.
Se você quer felicidade por um dia, vá pescar.
Se você quer felicidade por um ano, herde uma fortuna.
Se você quer felicidade por toda a vida, ajude alguém.
Um provérbio chinês
(Na verdade, eu não tenho certeza se isso realmente é um provérbio chinês – mas eu gosto mesmo assim!)
“A maioria das pessoas é tão feliz quanto se decide.”
Source: Activity Village.co.uk
A word which is used instead of a noun perhaps because you have already talked about the person or thing, eg I, they, which.
A word which describes an action or a state of being, eg eat, like, know.
A word which describes or gives more information about a verb or an adjective, eg he walked quickly, she danced well.
A word which describes something or someone, eg beautiful, happy, long.
A word which is used with a noun or pronoun to show time, place or direction, eg at, on, in.
A word which connects words and phrases in a sentence, eg but, and, although.
A word which is used before a noun to show which particular example of the noun you are referring to, eg this pencil, your shoes.
An interjection is a word that is used to
express emotion, eg Oh no! Gosh! Ow!
Part of speech
Learners need to know what type of word (noun, verb, adjective) they are learning so that they know how to put it into a sentence.
What idea the word shows and what contexts the word applies to.
Learners need to know how to say the word, how many syllables there are and which is stressed, eg ed-u-CA-tion.
Learners need to know how to write the word.
Learners need to know if the word has a positive or a negative sense to it. For example, the words ‘slim’ and ‘skinny’ both mean thin but one has a positive connotation (slim) and the other (skinny) doesn’t.
Learners need to know which words go with the word they are learning. For example, we make beds but do housework.
Learners need to know other words that are formed from the same word, for example, kind, unkind, kindness, kindly.
Learners need to know if the word should be used in formal or informal situations. For example, assist and help have the same meaning but assist is more formal than help.
A part of a word that usually contains a vowel sound, eg pen = one syllable; teacher = two syllables – teach/er; umbrella = three syllables – um/brell/a.
Spoken language in which the words join to form a connected stream of sounds. In connected speech some sounds in words may be left out or some sounds may be pronounced in a weak way or some words might join together, eg Is he busy? /ɪzibɪzi/.
The smallest sound unit which can make a difference to meaning eg /p/ in pan, /b/ in ban. Phonemes have their own symbols (phonemic symbols), each of which represents one sound.
The characters we use which represent the different sounds or phonemes, eg /ɜː/, /tʃ/, /θ/. Words can be written in phonemic script (usually the International Phonetic Alphabet or IPA), eg /dɒktə/ = doctor.
1 A sound in which the air is partly blocked by the lips, tongue, teeth etc., eg /θ/ in ‘thing’, /b/ in ‘boy’.
2 Any letter of the English alphabet which represents consonant sounds, eg d = /d/, c = /k/.
Diphthongs are vowel sounds. They are a combination of two single vowel sounds said one after the other to produce a new sound; eg /aɪ/ as in ‘my’ is pronounced by saying /æ/ and /ɪ/ together. There are eight diphthongs in English: /iə/(eg ear), /eɪ/(eg play), /ʊə/(eg tourist), /ɔɪ/(eg boy), /əʊ/ (eg go), /eə/(eg air), /aɪ/(eg life), /aʊ/ (eg now).
1 A sound in which the air is not blocked by the tongue, lips, teeth etc., eg /i:/ (eat), /ə/ (about), /e/ (egg), /ʌ/ (fun). Movement or vibration is felt in the throat because the voice is used.
2 In the alphabet, the letters a, e, i, o, u are vowels.
The way the level of a speaker’s voice changes to show meaning such as how they feel about something; eg the level of your voice when you are angry is different from the level of your voice when you are pleased. Intonation can be rising or falling or both.
Pronouncing part of a word (syllable) or part of a sentence louder and longer than other parts, eg VEGetable, I LOVE baNAnas. Some parts of words and sentences are stressed (those in capital letters in these examples) and some are unstressed.
Sentence stress is about the way some words in a sentence are stressed and some are unstressed. The stressed words are usually the information-carrying words or content words such as nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. For example, It was a LOVely EVEning, and the TEMperature was PERfect (the parts of the words in capitals are stressed).
Word stress is about which syllable of a word is pronounced louder and longer – eg umBRELLa /ʌmˈbrelə/.
A poster or diagram of the phonemic symbols arranged in a particular order. Below is an example of the International Phonetic Alphabet or IPA.
Source : © UCLES 2018
Wise Words from Stephen Hawking …
“Remember to look up at the stars and not down at your feet. Try to make sense of what you see and wonder about what makes the universe exist. Be curious. And however difficult life may seem, there is always something you can do and succeed at. It matters that you don’t just give up.”
“Work gives you meaning and purpose and life is empty without it.”
“It would not be much of a universe if it wasn’t home to the people you love.”
“Life would be tragic if it weren’t funny”.
“We are all different. There is no such thing as a standard or run-of-the-mill human being, but we share the same human spirit.”
“Nothing cannot exist forever.”
Segue um glossário com uma lista de termos usados na confecção de um plano de aula eficaz, necessário para uma boa aula com a interação e motivação do aluno.
What the teacher wants to achieve in the lesson or in the course. The main aim is the most important aim.
The aim or purpose of a stage, step or short section of a lesson.
The secondary focus of the lesson, less important than the main aim. It could be the language or skills learners use in order to achieve the main aim of the lesson, or a skill or language area which is practised while the teacher is working on achieving the main lesson aim.
What the teacher would like to improve in his/her teaching.
Anticipated problems and solutions
When teachers are planning a lesson, they think about what their learners might find difficult about the lesson and about how they can help them learn more effectively at certain points in the lesson.
When teachers think about what they believe their learners will or will not know or how they will behave in a particular lesson.
A description of the learners and information about their learning, including their age, ability, strengths and weaknesses in language and skills.
The different ways learners and the teacher work together in class, e.g. learner to learner in pairs or groups, or teacher to learner in open class, in plenary. When teachers plan lessons, they think about interaction patterns and write them on their plan.
A breakdown of vocabulary and grammar covered in the lesson which provides information about the structure of the language, what it means and how it is used.
A set of actions that describes the way to do something. Teachers write lesson plans and provide details of exactly what is going to happen in each stage of a lesson. The details of the different actions are the procedures of the lesson.
The materials or tools which teachers use in class to help learners learn.
A section of a lesson. Lessons have different stages or steps such as lead-in, presentation, practice.
Teachers plan timetables which provide details of the lessons they will teach in the near future. Timetable fit is about how a lesson fits logically into the sequence of lessons in a timetable.
The likely time different activities or stages in a lesson plan should take. When teachers plan lessons, they think about how long each activity will take and they usually write this on their plan.
This is when teachers identify and address the different needs, interests or abilities of their learners by providing a range of activity types and using a range of approaches.
This is the commonly accepted abbreviation for teacher talk time and refers to the amount of time in a lesson that the teacher talks to the learners. It is important that TTT is helpful to the learners.
This is the commonly accepted abbreviation for student talk time and refers to the amount of time in a lesson that the students talk. There needs to be a balance of TTT and STT in a language lesson.
This is when teachers use language they know the students have already studied to ease the cognitive load. This can be done by avoiding informal, colloquial language or complex grammar structures.
When the teacher asks learners questions, or prompts them, to come up with ideas or language. It can be used to activate their existing knowledge of a language point in order to base new knowledge on what they already know.
When the teacher observes learners during an activity to check their understanding of the activity and assess their progress.
This happens at the end of the activity cycle when the teacher gives the learners feedback on their performance by going through the answers with the class and/or finding out what they have talked about. This stage can be used for further clarification if the learners still need help with the language point.
Source: British Council
© UCLES 2018
Segue um excelente material explicando sobre a importância das etapas do aprendizado de leitura,como coerência, coesão, fluência, etc. Feito pela British Council
Reading for gist/Skimming
Reading quickly to get a general understanding of a written text, eg reading a description of a city to find out if it sounds like somewhere you’d like to visit.
Reading for specific information/Scanning
Searching for a particular piece of information in a written text, eg reading a description of a city only to find out which country it’s in.
Reading/listening for detail
Reading or listening more carefully so that you get a full understanding of the text, eg reading a description of a city to find out everything about it.
Listening for gist
Getting a general understanding of something you hear, eg listening to the weather forecast and deciding you might need to take an umbrella when you go out.
Listening for specific information
Listening for a particular piece of information, eg listening to the weather forecast to find out what the temperature will be tomorrow.
Making guesses about what is not stated explicitly in a text, eg listening or reading a conversation and deciding that the people are brother and sister without them saying so.
Organising ideas in a logical way when speaking or writing so that the listener or reader can follow our ideas.
Joining sentences together using words like and, but and because so our language flows more easily.
Strategies we use when we are speaking, eg showing you are listening to other people by saying things like, mmmm or uh-uh or oh!
An interactive strategy which is about knowing when you can join in a conversation and signalling when you think someone else should speak.
For speaking; this is speaking without a lot of hesitation and too many long pauses. For writing; this means you can write without stopping for a long time to think about what to write.