Vocabulário sobre Aeroporto #english #englishteacher #ingles
Existem várias formas de ajudar a uma criança no seu desenvolvimento de vocabulário em inglês. Abaixo seguem algumas dessas ideias
You will notice quite a rich and varied vocabulary. We wouldn’t be expecting a child to produce this kind of language, especially if English is an additional language, but the adult can expose the child to this language, inputting key words and expressions associated with different activities in a fun and natural way. Remember that children like playing with words, even if they don’t know what the word means, and this is a valuable opportunity to work on pronunciation.
Children will reap the future benefits of this language rich environment, so closely connected to the activities that they love doing.
Playing with blocks
- use language for counting and sorting: How many are there? Shall we put the blue ones here?
- use positional language: in, on, under, below, behind, next to
- explore language related to size: big, small, long, short
- describe what a child is doing while playing: finding, stacking, pulling, pushing, building, pressing, dragging
- describe shapes and objects the children are making: square, rectangle, tower, house, castle, garden
Dress-ups (and drama)
- describe the costumes (fairy, princess, pirate, king, clown) and actions for getting dressed: put on, pull up/down, zip up, do the buttons up, unbutton, unzip
- highlight the relevant parts of the body: put your arms through here, tie this around your waist/wrist, put these on your feet – first your left foot, then your right foot, put this over your head
- use nursery rhymes and stories to model language for imaginary play
- develop listening comprehension by encouraging the children act out the rhyme or story in their costumes
- extend vocabulary associated with role-play: hospital, airport, artist’s studio, garden centre, vet, doctor, routines (breakfast/lunch/dinner/bed time)
Making and decorating (art and craft)
- name the materials: paint, paintbrush, crayon, felt-tip, marker, card, paper, crepe paper, shiny paper, tissue paper, newspaper, glue, scissors, cotton wool, fabric, sequins, feathers
- describe properties and textures of materials: runny, thick, smooth, hard, long, short, spiky, rough, shiny
- experiment with and describe colour
- use instructions: paint, draw, colour, smudge, blur, blow, copy, pour, make, cut, stick, decorate, hang (it) up
- art appreciation and describing what the children have made, painted or drawn.
Malleable materials (dough, plasticine, clay)
- use language of manipulation: push, pull, drop, squeeze, press, bend, twist, roll, stretch, squash, squish, pinch, flatten, poke, scrape, break apart
- describe length/thickness: longer than, shorter than, the same length as
- use language related to colour and smells
- describe texture: soft, hard, squishy, lumpy, grainy, shiny
- talk about materials that can be added to dough: feathers, sticks, twigs, shells
- explore language related to shapes
Music and movement activities
- use language related to actions, position and parts of the body: put your hands up in the air, draw circles in the air, touch your nose, wriggle your fingers, jump, hop, lie face down on the floor, lie on your back, move over there, come closer, curl up into a ball, stretch your arms out as wide as you can, take a nap
- name musical instruments: shaker, drum, recorder, xylophone, block, triangle, bell, tambourine
- use language to describe sounds: loud, quiet, soft, high, low, long, short, fast, slow, tap, shake, scrape, knock, tick, hum, howl
- familiarise children with a range of sounds through onomatopoeia
- use songs and rhymes to work on pronunciation, rhythm, stress and intonation
Toys and small world play
- extend vocabulary related to a particular topic: park, zoo, farm, hospital, transport
- comment on the objects, toys or figurines the children are playing with
- comment on the settings, scenes, themes or storylines children are developing as they play
- describe the position of the things the children are playing with: behind, next to, in, on, under
- describe the pictures and colours on the puzzles
- comment on the shape of the puzzle pieces: rectangle, square, triangle, circle
- comment on the position of the puzzle pieces: up/down, here/there
- encourage the social aspects of using puzzles: take turns, it’s your turn next, share
Sand play and water play
- use language related to equipment and resources: brush, spade, scoop, spoon, cup, jug, bucket, sieve, cutters, rake, comb, funnel, sponge, soap, bubbles, straw, ladle, tea pot, watering can
- extend vocabulary related to imaginary play: boats, diggers, bulldozers, tractors, treasure, dinosaurs, pirates, gardens, tea party, firefighter, plumber, dolls
- use descriptive language: wet, dry, damp, gritty, hard, lumpy, flat, smooth, wavy, sticky, cold, frozen, clean, dirty
- use language related to size, shape and position
- describe capacity and quantity: enough, more, less, too much/little, overflowing, how much/many? a pile/cup of…
- describe actions or what is happening: it’s fallen down, it’s gone, flatten, pour, tip, fill, scoop, cover, stir, splash, leak, drip, float, sink, trickle, spray, wash, dry.
© British Council
Through interactions we can support and extend a child’s learning and development, particularly in the area of communication and language.
Apart from building an emotional connection with the child through interactions, children benefit from hearing lots of talk, conversations and words. In 2012, Associate Professor at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, Meredith Rowe, carried out a study which looked at what contributes most to a child’s later vocabulary development. She found that:
- children’s vocabulary at 30 months was influenced by the quantity of words parents used one year earlier,
- their vocabulary at 42 months was influenced by parents’ use of a variety of sophisticated words one year earlier,
- their vocabulary at 54 months was influenced by parents’ use of narratives and explanations one year earlier.
Adults can interact by talking, listening and responding to the child.
Even if a child is not yet able to communicate verbally, the adult can contribute to the exchange using language. For example:
The child grizzles because he is feeling hungry.
Adult: I can see you’re upset. Would you like some milk?
The child rubs her eyes.
Adult: You look sleepy. I think it’s time for a nap.
The child flaps her arms excitedly.
Adult: I know you like that song! It goes la, la, la, la!
Child squeals in delight.
By showing genuine interest in the child and adding interest to what the child has offered, we are building trust, communication, and developing the child’s language skills all at the same time.
We can support and extend a child’s language development, just by being with them and interacting in a natural way.
© British Council
How can we provide a proper environment for children to develop?
Here are a few examples:
- Provide optimal conditions for rich play: space, time, flexible resources, choice, control, warm and supportive relationships.
- Make materials easily accessible at child height, to ensure everybody can make choices.
- Provide experiences and activities that are challenging but achievable.
- Provide activities that require give and take or sharing for things to be fair.
- Plan first-hand experiences and challenges appropriate to the development of the children.
- Convey to each child that you appreciate them and their efforts.
- Ensure children have uninterrupted time to play and explore.
- Incorporate recognisable and predictable routines to help children to predict and make connections in their experiences.
- Use puppets and other props to encourage listening and responding when singing a familiar song or reading from a story book.
- When you use songs and nursery rhymes, help children understand the words by using actions as well.
- Help children to predict and order events coherently, by providing props and materials that encourage children to re-enact, using talk and action.
- Set up displays that remind children of what they have experienced, using objects, artefacts, photographs and books.
- Display pictures and photographs showing familiar events, objects and activities and talk about them with the children.
- Provide activities which help children to learn to distinguish differences in sounds, word patterns and rhythms.
- Encourage correct use of language by telling repetitive stories, and playing games which involve repetition of words or phrases.
- Follow young children’s lead and have fun together while developing vocabulary, e.g. saying ‘We’re jumping up’, ‘crouching down low’.
- Talk through and comment on some activities to highlight specific vocabulary or language structures, e.g. “You’ve got a blue ball. I’ve got a green ball. Hannah’s got a red ball”.
- Provide collections of interesting things for children to sort, order, count and label in their play.
- Provide different sizes and shapes of containers in water play, so that children can experiment with quantities and measures.
- Offer a range of puzzles with large pieces and knobs or handles to support success in fitting shapes into spaces.
- Provide a wide range of materials, resources and sensory experiences to enable children to explore colour, texture and space.
- Provide space and time for movement and dance both indoors and outdoors.
- Lead imaginative movement sessions based on children’s current interests such as space travel, zoo animals or shadows.
- Provide a place where work in progress can be kept safely.
© Adapted from: Development Matters in the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS). London: Early Education, 2012.
Cat café’ and other words added to OxfordDictionaries.com
Mic drops, awesomesauce, manspreading, and more
Mx, Grexit, and other words in the news
Gaming and the Internet
Muitas alunos me perguntam por que têm tanta dificuldade em aprender inglês. Eu sempre respondo que, a professora é só um dos meios de aprendizagem. Se não houver engajamento do aluno em estudar, ler, escutar músicas, assistir séries, conversar com nativos, esse aprendizado será mais difícil.
Segue um texto com excelente explicação sobre esse tema. Não deixem de ler.
A lista abaixo resume como o envolvimento com o idioma pode ser observado. Lembre-se de que os alunos também podem se engajar em maneiras que não são observáveis e, inversamente, podem fingir estar engajados para satisfazer o professor.
Critérios para identificar o envolvimento com a linguagem (EWL) (Svalberg, 2012: 378, adaptado de Svalberg 2009: 247)
Quão alerta é o aluno?
O aluno parece enérgico ou letárgico?
Ele parece notar os recursos de linguagem / interação?
A atenção do aluno está na linguagem (como objeto ou meio) ou não?
A mente do aprendiz parece vagar?
Quão reflexivo? Quão crítico / analítico?
O raciocínio do aprendiz é indutivo ou baseado em memória / imitação?
O aluno percebe e reflete ou simplesmente reage?
Com relação à língua-alvo, o aluno compara, faz perguntas, infere / tira conclusões?
Quão disposto é o aluno a se envolver com a linguagem?
O aluno é retirado ou ansioso para participar?
O aluno parece entediado ou não focado na tarefa, ou estar focado?
O comportamento do aluno é dependente ou independente?
Interage, verbalmente ou de outra forma, com os outros para aprender?
Como apoiar os outros?
por exemplo. por comportamentos verbais ou outros?
O aluno se envolve em negociação e andaimes?
Líder ou seguidor?
As interações do aluno são reativas ou iniciadas?
© Universidade de Leicester
How engagement with language might be observed
The list below summarizes how engagement with language might be observed. Remember that learners may also engage in ways that are not observable, and conversely they can pretend to be engaged in order to satisfy the teacher.
Criteria for identifying engagement with language (EWL) (Svalberg, 2012: 378, adapted from Svalberg 2009: 247)
How alert is the learner?
- Does the learner seem energetic or lethargic?
- Does he or she seem to notice language/interaction features?
- Is the learner’s attention on the language (as object or medium) or not?
- Does the learner’s mind seem to wander?
How reflective?; How critical/analytical?
- Is the learner’s reasoning inductive or memory/imitation based?
- Does the learner notice and reflect, or simply react?
- With regard to the target language, does the learner compare, ask questions, infer/ draw conclusions?
How willing is the learner to engage with language?
- Is the learner withdrawn or eager to participate?
- Does the learner seem bored or not focused on the task, or to be focused?
Is the learner’s behaviour dependent or independent?
- Does he or she interact, verbally or otherwise, with others to learn?
How supportive of others?
- e.g. by verbal or other behaviours?
- Does the learner engage in negotiation and scaffolding?
Leader or follower?
- Are the learner’s interactions reactive or initiating?
© University of Leicester
Definimos lingüística aplicada como um assunto acadêmico que se concentra na análise de problemas de linguagem do mundo real. Mostramos como ela se liga à linguística, mas vai além disso para abranger uma ampla gama de campos relacionados. A Linguística Aplicada é um campo de estudo relativamente novo e ainda está evoluindo e se expandindo, o que significa que os limites entre lingüística e lingüística aplicada não são claros.
Os linguistas aplicados não apenas tentam resolver problemas de linguagem do mundo real, mas também levantam questões sobre o uso da linguagem e seu impacto social. Nesse sentido, os pesquisadores linguísticos aplicados visam ser críticos, objetivos e factuais.
Vimos algumas maneiras pelas quais a pesquisa aplicada em lingüística teve um impacto real na sociedade em geral, já que essa é uma das características distintivas da disciplina; sua aplicação a problemas da vida real onde a linguagem é central. Vimos também que uma das principais aplicações é melhorar a eficiência e a eficácia do ensino, aprendizagem e avaliação de línguas, uma área que iremos aprofundar nas próximas semanas.
We’ve defined applied linguistics as an academic subject that focuses on the analysis of real world language problems. We have shown how it links to linguistics but goes beyond this to cover a broad range of related fields. Applied Linguistics is a relatively new field of study and is still evolving and expanding, which means that the boundaries between linguistics and applied linguistics are not clear cut.
Applied linguists not only try to solve real world language problems but also raise questions about language use and its social impact. In this sense, applied linguistic researchers aim to be critical as well as objective and factual.
We have looked at just a few ways that applied linguistics research has had a real impact on broader society, as this is one of the distinctive features of the discipline; its application to real life problems where language is central. We have also seen that one of the key applications is to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of language teaching, learning and assessment, which is an area that we will explore further in the following weeks.