Como ajudar um aluno de 2ª Língua em sala de aula.

Aprender em um segundo idioma pode ser desafiador, mas como o professor pode fazer uma grande diferença. Veja um resumo das principais ideias.

1- A linguagem é mais do que vocabulário, gramática e ortografia. É moldado por discursos, convenções de gênero e contexto.

2- Os estudantes precisam controlar tanto o registro interpessoal cotidiano quanto o registro acadêmico mais formal para obter sucesso na escola.

3- Os alunos de idiomas virão de várias circunstâncias com uma variedade de recursos, por isso, não faça suposições sobre suas necessidades.

4- Não o deixe em osmose – planeje o aprendizado de idiomas, bem como o aprendizado do currículo.

5- Mantenha o foco em fazer sentido, não em correção.

Incentivar a repetição, reciclagem e redundância.

Use recursos visuais e gestos para apoiar os alunos de idiomas.

6- Em seus recursos de conversação e sala de aula, busque “mais compreensibilidatde”.

7- Receba as primeiras línguas dos seus alunos na sala de aula.

8- Planeje diferentes espaços e atividades para diferentes tipos de conversa.

9- Dê aos alunos de idiomas um pouco mais de tempo de espera.

10- Entenda as demandas específicas de idioma da sua área de currículo.

11- Construa o ciclo de gênero em seu planejamento de aula.

12- Deixe os alunos entrarem no mundo das convenções de gênero.

13- Use o feedback sobre o trabalho dos alunos como uma oportunidade para o aprendizado de idiomas.

15- Observe como os alunos de sua língua estão progredindo e planeje o próximo estágio.

© Universidade de Glasgow

Learning in a second language can be challenging, but a language-aware teacher can make a big difference. Here’s a summary of the main ideas.

  • Language is more than vocabulary, grammar and spelling. It is shaped by discourses, genre conventions and context.
  • Students need control of both the everyday interpersonal register and the more formal academic register to succeed in school.
  • Language learners will come from a variety of circumstances with a variety of resources, so don’t make assumptions about their needs.
  • Don’t leave it to osmosis – plan for language learning as well as curriculum learning.
  • Keep the focus on making meaning, not on correctness.
  • Encourage repetition, recycling and redundancy.
  • Use visuals and gestures to support language learners.
  • In your talk and classroom resources, aim for ‘comprehensibility plus’.
  • Welcome your students’ first languages into the classroom.
  • Plan different spaces and activities for different types of talk.
  • Give language learners a bit more wait time.
  • Understand the particular language demands of your curriculum area.
  • Build the genre cycle into your lesson planning.
  • Let students into the secrets of genre conventions.
  • Use feedback on students’ work as an opportunity for language learning.
  • Observe how your language learners are progressing, and plan for the next stage.
Advertisements

Food for Thought

Frases ou dizeres para nos levar a pensar.

“A ship is safe in harbor, but that’s not what ships are for.” 

John A. Shedd

 

“Courage is found in unlikely places.” 

J.R.R. Tolkien

 

“You may not always have a comfortable life and you will not always be able to solve all of the world’s problems at once but don’t ever underestimate the importance you can have because history has shown us that courage can be contagious and hope can take on a life of its own.”

Michelle Obama

 

“Courage is what it takes to stand up and speak; courage is also what it takes to sit down and listen.”

Winston Churchill

 

“Since it is so likely that children will meet cruel enemies let them at least have heard of brave knights and heroic courage.” 

CS Lewis

 

“Never bend your head. Always hold it high. Look the world straight in the eye.”

Helen Keller

 

“Courage does not always roar. Sometimes courage is the quiet voice at the end of the day saying, ‘I will try again tomorrow.”

Mary Anne Radmacher

http://www.activityvillage.co.uk/

Como vc pode ajudar no desenvolvimento da linguagem de uma criança.

Existem várias formas de ajudar a uma criança no seu desenvolvimento de vocabulário em inglês. Abaixo seguem algumas dessas ideias

You will notice quite a rich and varied vocabulary. We wouldn’t be expecting a child to produce this kind of language, especially if English is an additional language, but the adult can expose the child to this language, inputting key words and expressions associated with different activities in a fun and natural way. Remember that children like playing with words, even if they don’t know what the word means, and this is a valuable opportunity to work on pronunciation.

Children will reap the future benefits of this language rich environment, so closely connected to the activities that they love doing.

Playing with blocks

  • use language for counting and sorting: How many are there? Shall we put the blue ones here?
  • use positional language: in, on, under, below, behind, next to
  • explore language related to size: big, small, long, short
  • describe what a child is doing while playing: finding, stacking, pulling, pushing, building, pressing, dragging
  • describe shapes and objects the children are making: square, rectangle, tower, house, castle, garden

Dress-ups (and drama)

  • describe the costumes (fairy, princess, pirate, king, clown) and actions for getting dressed: put on, pull up/down, zip up, do the buttons up, unbutton, unzip
  • highlight the relevant parts of the body: put your arms through here, tie this around your waist/wrist, put these on your feet – first your left foot, then your right foot, put this over your head
  • use nursery rhymes and stories to model language for imaginary play
  • develop listening comprehension by encouraging the children act out the rhyme or story in their costumes
  • extend vocabulary associated with role-play: hospital, airport, artist’s studio, garden centre, vet, doctor, routines (breakfast/lunch/dinner/bed time)

Making and decorating (art and craft)

  • name the materials: paint, paintbrush, crayon, felt-tip, marker, card, paper, crepe paper, shiny paper, tissue paper, newspaper, glue, scissors, cotton wool, fabric, sequins, feathers
  • describe properties and textures of materials: runny, thick, smooth, hard, long, short, spiky, rough, shiny
  • experiment with and describe colour
  • use instructions: paint, draw, colour, smudge, blur, blow, copy, pour, make, cut, stick, decorate, hang (it) up
  • art appreciation and describing what the children have made, painted or drawn.

Malleable materials (dough, plasticine, clay)

  • use language of manipulation: push, pull, drop, squeeze, press, bend, twist, roll, stretch, squash, squish, pinch, flatten, poke, scrape, break apart
  • describe length/thickness: longer than, shorter than, the same length as
  • use language related to colour and smells
  • describe texture: soft, hard, squishy, lumpy, grainy, shiny
  • talk about materials that can be added to dough: feathers, sticks, twigs, shells
  • explore language related to shapes

Music and movement activities

  • use language related to actions, position and parts of the body: put your hands up in the air, draw circles in the air, touch your nose, wriggle your fingers, jump, hop, lie face down on the floor, lie on your back, move over there, come closer, curl up into a ball, stretch your arms out as wide as you can, take a nap
  • name musical instruments: shaker, drum, recorder, xylophone, block, triangle, bell, tambourine
  • use language to describe sounds: loud, quiet, soft, high, low, long, short, fast, slow, tap, shake, scrape, knock, tick, hum, howl
  • familiarise children with a range of sounds through onomatopoeia
  • use songs and rhymes to work on pronunciation, rhythm, stress and intonation

Toys and small world play

  • extend vocabulary related to a particular topic: park, zoo, farm, hospital, transport
  • comment on the objects, toys or figurines the children are playing with
  • comment on the settings, scenes, themes or storylines children are developing as they play
  • describe the position of the things the children are playing with: behind, next to, in, on, under

Puzzles

  • describe the pictures and colours on the puzzles
  • comment on the shape of the puzzle pieces: rectangle, square, triangle, circle
  • comment on the position of the puzzle pieces: up/down, here/there
  • encourage the social aspects of using puzzles: take turns, it’s your turn next, share

Sand play and water play

  • use language related to equipment and resources: brush, spade, scoop, spoon, cup, jug, bucket, sieve, cutters, rake, comb, funnel, sponge, soap, bubbles, straw, ladle, tea pot, watering can
  • extend vocabulary related to imaginary play: boats, diggers, bulldozers, tractors, treasure, dinosaurs, pirates, gardens, tea party, firefighter, plumber, dolls
  • use descriptive language: wet, dry, damp, gritty, hard, lumpy, flat, smooth, wavy, sticky, cold, frozen, clean, dirty
  • use language related to size, shape and position
  • describe capacity and quantity: enough, more, less, too much/little, overflowing, how much/many? a pile/cup of…
  • describe actions or what is happening: it’s fallen down, it’s gone, flatten, pour, tip, fill, scoop, cover, stir, splash, leak, drip, float, sink, trickle, spray, wash, dry.

Supporting and extending language development

Through interactions we can support and extend a child’s learning and development, particularly in the area of communication and language.

Apart from building an emotional connection with the child through interactions, children benefit from hearing lots of talk, conversations and words. In 2012, Associate Professor at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, Meredith Rowe, carried out a study which looked at what contributes most to a child’s later vocabulary development. She found that:

  • children’s vocabulary at 30 months was influenced by the quantity of words parents used one year earlier,
  • their vocabulary at 42 months was influenced by parents’ use of a variety of sophisticated words one year earlier,
  • their vocabulary at 54 months was influenced by parents’ use of narratives and explanations one year earlier.

Adults can interact by talking, listening and responding to the child.

Even if a child is not yet able to communicate verbally, the adult can contribute to the exchange using language. For example:

The child grizzles because he is feeling hungry.
Adult: I can see you’re upset. Would you like some milk?
Child nods.

The child rubs her eyes.
Adult: You look sleepy. I think it’s time for a nap.

The child flaps her arms excitedly.
Adult: I know you like that song! It goes la, la, la, la!
Child squeals in delight.

By showing genuine interest in the child and adding interest to what the child has offered, we are building trust, communication, and developing the child’s language skills all at the same time.

We can support and extend a child’s language development, just by being with them and interacting in a natural way.

Why is it important for a child to feel happy and safe in order to learn?

How can we provide a proper environment for children to develop?

Here are a few examples:

  • Provide optimal conditions for rich play: space, time, flexible resources, choice, control, warm and supportive relationships.
  • Make materials easily accessible at child height, to ensure everybody can make choices.
  • Provide experiences and activities that are challenging but achievable.
  • Provide activities that require give and take or sharing for things to be fair.
  • Plan first-hand experiences and challenges appropriate to the development of the children.
  • Convey to each child that you appreciate them and their efforts.
  • Ensure children have uninterrupted time to play and explore.
  • Incorporate recognisable and predictable routines to help children to predict and make connections in their experiences.
  • Use puppets and other props to encourage listening and responding when singing a familiar song or reading from a story book.
  • When you use songs and nursery rhymes, help children understand the words by using actions as well.
  • Help children to predict and order events coherently, by providing props and materials that encourage children to re-enact, using talk and action.
  • Set up displays that remind children of what they have experienced, using objects, artefacts, photographs and books.
  • Display pictures and photographs showing familiar events, objects and activities and talk about them with the children.
  • Provide activities which help children to learn to distinguish differences in sounds, word patterns and rhythms.
  • Encourage correct use of language by telling repetitive stories, and playing games which involve repetition of words or phrases.
  • Follow young children’s lead and have fun together while developing vocabulary, e.g. saying ‘We’re jumping up’, ‘crouching down low’.
  • Talk through and comment on some activities to highlight specific vocabulary or language structures, e.g. “You’ve got a blue ball. I’ve got a green ball. Hannah’s got a red ball”.
  • Provide collections of interesting things for children to sort, order, count and label in their play.
  • Provide different sizes and shapes of containers in water play, so that children can experiment with quantities and measures.
  • Offer a range of puzzles with large pieces and knobs or handles to support success in fitting shapes into spaces.
  • Provide a wide range of materials, resources and sensory experiences to enable children to explore colour, texture and space.
  • Provide space and time for movement and dance both indoors and outdoors.
  • Lead imaginative movement sessions based on children’s current interests such as space travel, zoo animals or shadows.
  • Provide a place where work in progress can be kept safely.

As Novas Palavras Criadas em Inglês na Atualidade

Cat café’ and other words added to OxfordDictionaries.com

NBD, but are you ready to fangirl over our dictionary update? Abso-bloody-lutely. We’ve got some awesomesauce new words – no, rly – that will inform and entertain whether you’re hangry or it’s already wine o’clock. Mic drop.

Mic drops, awesomesauce, manspreading, and more

Let’s pick that mic up again and check out some of the words that have been added to OxfordDictionaries.com in the world of informal language. The mic drop in question can be a literal ‘instance of deliberately dropping or tossing aside one’s microphone at the end of a performance or speech one considers to have been particularly impressive’, but it’s more likely to be figurative – or an exclamation to emphasize a particularly impressive point: Nuff said. Mic drop.

Mic drop has been added to OxfordDictionaries.com

If you want to describe something as excellent, you can use awesomesauce; on the other side of the coin, anything of a poor or disappointing standard is weak sauce. Weak sauce came first, and has a more comprehensible origin as a metaphor; an inadequate sauce would certainly let down an otherwise decent meal. Though awesomesauce clearly comes from the words awesome and sauce, the former is currently beating the latter in the Oxford English Corpus and Oxford Twitter Corpus.

Why say banter (‘playfully teasing or mocking remarks exchanged with another person or group’) when you can save a syllable with bants? (Be careful where you use it, though; the term might be recognized in the UK, but is likely to get bemused looks elsewhere.) And, speaking of brevity, the initialism NBDcan take the place of no big deal, while rly is handy textspeak for really. SJW stands for social justice warrior, which is also added in this update. It’s ‘a person who expresses or promotes socially progressive views’, but the word is used derogatively, usually by those who do not share these views.

You may remember mansplain from last year’s update. It’s now joined by the noun manspreading: ‘the practice whereby a man, especially one travelling on public transport, adopts a sitting position with his legs wide apart, in such a way as to encroach on an adjacent seat or seats’. If you’re a gentleman reading this on the bus … can we suggest you arrange your legs considerately? Rly.

Manic pixie dream girl has been added from the world of film criticism: find out more in our video post.

Other informal terms in this update include brain fart, bitch face, bruh, butthurt, fur baby, MacGyver, mkay, rando, and swole.

Mx, Grexit, and other words in the news

Among the additions in the August update, there are those that relate to recent news and events. The blends Brexit (British/Britain + exit) and Grexit (Greek/Greece + exit) were coined in 2012, relating to potential departures of the United Kingdom from the European Union and Greece from the eurozone (those countries which use the euro as their national currency).

Mx has been added to OxfordDictionaries.com

The honorific Mx has also been added to OxfordDictionaries.com. It’s used (in the same way as Mr, Miss, Mrs, Ms etc.) before a person’s surname or full name as a gender-neutral title. Katherine Martin, Head of US Dictionaries, recently spoke with the New York Times about the rising popularity of the term, which is first found in the late 1970s and has gained significant traction since.

Hangry?

Some fanciful words relating to food and drink are also included in the August update. Beer o’clock and wine o’clock are humorous terms for the (supposedly) appropriate times of day for having your first glass of either drink. You might need to start the meal earlier if you’re feeling hangry: a blend of hungry and angry, meaning ‘bad-tempered or irritable as a result of hunger’. Anything snackable will come in handy.

Hangry has been added to OxfordDictionaries.com

English often forms new words using existing suffixes, and the realm of food and drink shows several such innovations. From the –y ending comes cheffy (relating to, or characteristic of, a chef) and melty (melting or partially melted); from the –ery ending, we get cidery (a place where cider is made) and cupcakery (a bakery that specializes in cupcakes). The latter is a venue where you’re unlikely to have the option of cakeage, which is ‘a charge made by a restaurant for serving a cake that they have not supplied themselves’, and another word created by the inclusion of a common suffix. The word is modelled on the pattern of corkage, where the same rule applies to wine. And if you can’t bring yourself to have the finest things in life separately, there is now the option of a cat café, where café patrons can eat while surrounded by feline friends.

Cat café has been added to OxfordDictionaries.com

Edible additions to OxfordDictionaries.comfrom Australian English include Anzac biscuit, barmaid’s blush (typically red wine mixed with lemonade or beer mixed with raspberry cordial), battered sav (battered saveloy sausage), and lolly cake (a cake containing sweets, known generically as lollies in Australian and New Zealand English).

Gaming and the Internet

Whether you’re a Redditor, a YouTuber, or more used to handling physical meeples(playing pieces in certain board games), this update has terms that’ll come in handy. Some don’t show the finer side of the human character: rage-quit is a verb meaning to ‘angrily abandon an activity or pursuit that has become frustrating’, and is especially used in relation to video games.

Rage-quit has been added to OxfordDictionaries.com

One reason you might rage-quit is because you are being pwned: that is, utterly defeated by an opponent. This informal term is used more often in video gaming, and supposedly resulted from a common mistyping of own with this sense, as a result of the proximity of p and o on a computer keyboard. Along with pwn comes pwnage(and ownage), being ‘the action or fact of utterly defeating an opponent or rival’.

A Redditor is a registered user of the website Reddit; the word is formed on the pattern of editor, and the site relies upon user-submitted content, posted in subreddits(forums dedicated to specific topics). Users might well post content that they consider glanceable, shareable, and even snackable – which can refer to online content designed to be read or viewed quickly, as well as to food.

Other additions from the sphere of technology and the Internet include spear phishing (‘the fraudulent practice of sending emails ostensibly from a known or trusted sender in order to induce targeted individuals to reveal confidential information’), and blockchain (‘a digital ledger in which transactions made in bitcoin or another cryptocurrency are recorded chronologically and publicly’). Nor are mobile phones left out: butt-dial and pocket-dialhave been added, denoting that awkward moment when you dial someone’s number by mistake while your phone is in your pocket.

A importância da pronúncia na comunicação de sucesso.

Two people having a conversation

Pronunciation for successful communication

Being understood

We all know how important pronunciation is for intelligibility: if we can’t understand the individual sounds in a language (referred to as phonemes), we can’t recognize words and without word recognition, we can’t segment speech into meaningful chunks or phrases (referred to as tone units or thought groups). How often do we say ‘I couldn’t make out a word he/she was saying’.

A certain level of clarity and precision is necessary in pronunciation in order to achieve intelligibility. It has been suggested that there may be a ‘threshold’ level of intelligibility, below which individuals will not be understood (Hinofotis and Bailey, 1980).

Arguably, the degree of precision and clarity needed in a message varies from situation to situation. For example, it doesn’t particularly matter if you don’t understand every word that a friend says in a noisy café, as long as you get the gist. However, it can be much more crucial that a message between a pilot and air traffic controller is clear and precise (as we saw in week 2).

Being fluent

The role of pronunciation in communication is not restricted to intelligibility. Its function in communication goes far beyond simply recognising and understanding words in speech (i.e., intelligibility). Aspects of pronunciation, such as stress, rhythm, accentuation and pausing, also contribute to perceptions of speaker fluency, i.e. to the continuity, smoothness or evenness of speech. A speaker who pauses too much or in unexpected places, or who speaks too quickly or slowly, or who doesn’t signal clearly which parts of a message are more important than others is likely at least to irritate the listener or be labelled as linguistically incompetent.

Making an impression

Pronunciation, arguably more than any other area of language, can provoke emotional reactions. How we speak can quickly create lasting positive or negative impressions or strong reactions – ‘I can’t stand his voice’ – ‘I liked the sound of him’ – ‘don’t take that tone with me’.

The first impression we make when we speak is through our voice and our pronunciation. Through our accent, tone of voice and delivery, we convey a great deal about who we are and how we feel. Research suggests that pronunciation can have a crucial impact on how others evaluate us; accents can affect how intelligent or attractive you are perceived to be, and can potentially affect results in exams, trials and job interviews.

In this sense, pronunciation, and accent in particular, can have considerable strategic value, that is it can perform a ‘gatekeeping’ function. For instance, having the ‘right’ accent can open doors to career or social opportunities, while having a strong regional or foreign accent can lead to negative impressions and discrimination

Em Português

Pronúncia para uma comunicação bem sucedida

Ser entendido

Todos sabemos como a pronúncia é importante para a inteligibilidade: se não podemos entender os sons individuais em uma linguagem (denominada fonemas), não podemos reconhecer palavras e sem reconhecimento de palavras, não podemos segmentar a fala em partes significativas ou frases (referidas como unidades de tom ou grupos de pensamento). Com que frequência dizemos “não consegui distinguir uma palavra que ele / ela estava dizendo”.

Um certo nível de clareza e precisão é necessário na pronúncia, a fim de alcançar a inteligibilidade. Tem sido sugerido que pode haver um nível de inteligibilidade “limiar”, abaixo do qual os indivíduos não serão compreendidos (Hinofotis e Bailey, 1980).

Indiscutivelmente, o grau de precisão e clareza necessário em uma mensagem varia de situação para situação. Por exemplo, não importa se você não entende cada palavra que um amigo diz em um café barulhento, contanto que você adquira a essência. No entanto, pode ser muito mais crucial que uma mensagem entre um piloto e um controlador de tráfego aéreo seja clara e precisa (como vimos na semana 2).

Ser fluente

O papel da pronúncia na comunicação não se restringe à inteligibilidade. Sua função na comunicação vai muito além do simples reconhecimento e compreensão das palavras na fala (ou seja, inteligibilidade). Aspectos da pronúncia, como estresse, ritmo, acentuação e pausa, também contribuem para as percepções da fluência do falante, ou seja, para a continuidade, suavidade ou uniformidade da fala. Um orador que faz uma pausa demais ou em lugares inesperados, ou que fala rápido ou vagaroso, ou que não sinaliza claramente quais partes de uma mensagem são mais importantes do que outras, provavelmente irrita o ouvinte ou é rotulado como linguisticamente incompetente. .

© University of Leicester

Fazendo uma impressão

A pronúncia, sem dúvida mais do que qualquer outra área da linguagem, pode provocar reações emocionais. O modo como falamos pode criar rapidamente impressões duradouras, positivas ou negativas, ou reações fortes – “Eu não suporto a voz dele” – “Gostei do som dele”, “não tomo esse tom comigo”.

A primeira impressão que fazemos quando falamos é através da nossa voz e da nossa pronúncia. Através do nosso sotaque, tom de voz e entrega, transmitimos muito sobre quem somos e como nos sentimos. Pesquisas sugerem que a pronúncia pode ter um impacto crucial em como os outros nos avaliam; O sotaque pode afetar o quão inteligente ou atraente você é, e pode afetar os resultados em provas, testes e entrevistas de emprego.

Nesse sentido, a pronúncia e o sotaque em particular podem ter um valor estratégico considerável, isto é, podem executar uma função de “gatekeeping”. Por exemplo, ter o sotaque “certo” pode abrir portas para oportunidades profissionais ou sociais, embora ter um forte sotaque regional ou estrangeiro possa levar a impressões negativas e discriminação

Por quê eu não consigo aprender Inglês?

Muitas alunos me perguntam por que têm tanta dificuldade em aprender inglês. Eu sempre respondo que, a professora é só um dos meios de aprendizagem. Se não houver engajamento do aluno em estudar, ler, escutar músicas, assistir séries, conversar com nativos, esse aprendizado será mais difícil.

Segue um texto com excelente explicação sobre esse tema. Não deixem de ler.

A lista abaixo resume como o envolvimento com o idioma pode ser observado. Lembre-se de que os alunos também podem se engajar em maneiras que não são observáveis e, inversamente, podem fingir estar engajados para satisfazer o professor.

Critérios para identificar o envolvimento com a linguagem (EWL) (Svalberg, 2012: 378, adaptado de Svalberg 2009: 247)

Cognitivo

Quão alerta é o aluno?

O aluno parece enérgico ou letárgico?

Ele parece notar os recursos de linguagem / interação?

Como focado?

A atenção do aluno está na linguagem (como objeto ou meio) ou não?

A mente do aprendiz parece vagar?

Quão reflexivo? Quão crítico / analítico?

O raciocínio do aprendiz é indutivo ou baseado em memória / imitação?

O aluno percebe e reflete ou simplesmente reage?

Com relação à língua-alvo, o aluno compara, faz perguntas, infere / tira conclusões?

Afetivo

Quão disposto é o aluno a se envolver com a linguagem?

O aluno é retirado ou ansioso para participar?

Quão proposital?

O aluno parece entediado ou não focado na tarefa, ou estar focado?

Quão autônomo?

O comportamento do aluno é dependente ou independente?

Social

Como interativo

Interage, verbalmente ou de outra forma, com os outros para aprender?

Como apoiar os outros?

por exemplo. por comportamentos verbais ou outros?

O aluno se envolve em negociação e andaimes?

Líder ou seguidor?

As interações do aluno são reativas ou iniciadas?

© Universidade de Leicester

How engagement with language might be observed

The list below summarizes how engagement with language might be observed. Remember that learners may also engage in ways that are not observable, and conversely they can pretend to be engaged in order to satisfy the teacher.

Criteria for identifying engagement with language (EWL) (Svalberg, 2012: 378, adapted from Svalberg 2009: 247)

Cognitive

How alert is the learner?

  • Does the learner seem energetic or lethargic?
  • Does he or she seem to notice language/interaction features?

How focused?

  • Is the learner’s attention on the language (as object or medium) or not?
  • Does the learner’s mind seem to wander?

How reflective?; How critical/analytical?

  • Is the learner’s reasoning inductive or memory/imitation based?
  • Does the learner notice and reflect, or simply react?
  • With regard to the target language, does the learner compare, ask questions, infer/ draw conclusions?

Affective

How willing is the learner to engage with language?

  • Is the learner withdrawn or eager to participate?

How purposeful?

  • Does the learner seem bored or not focused on the task, or to be focused?

How autonomous?

Is the learner’s behaviour dependent or independent?

Social

How interactive

  • Does he or she interact, verbally or otherwise, with others to learn?

How supportive of others?

  • e.g. by verbal or other behaviours?
  • Does the learner engage in negotiation and scaffolding?

Leader or follower?

  • Are the learner’s interactions reactive or initiating?