Dealing with errors in class

Como devemos proceder quando nossos alunos cometem erros ao falar ou ao escrever? Devemos corrigi los no momento em que cometem o erro, devemos esperar e comentar sobre o erro depois ou ainda não comentamos sobre nada e deixamos que o tempo se encarregue disso? Em grupo ou individualmente?

Essa é uma dúvida difícil e muitos professores não saber como proceder! 

Segue alguns conselhos e dicas de especialistas: 

Dealing with errors in class
Teachers often correct spoken errors as soon as they hear them, sometimes called immediate or on the spot error correction.
This has both advantages and disadvantages. Consider the following:
Advantages Disadvantages

Learner is aware of their error Can affect learner confidence. They may feel embarrassed or unwilling to speak.

Learner might have the opportunity to correct their own error (if the teacher prompts them to) Learner may not be able to get their message across due to interruptions, so communication is impeded.

Can improve accuracy Has a negative effect on fluency

For on-the-spot correction, you can:

– Help the learner to correct themselves (self-correction)

– Help other learners to correct the error (peer correction)

– Correct the error yourself (teacher-led correction)
Which type of on-the-spot correction do you use with your learners? (Self-correction, peer correction or teacher-led correction). Share with us!
Source: © British Council

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Gerúndio ou Infinitivo?

Muitos alunos me perguntam como saber quando usar e ING ou TO na hora de escolher o tempo verbal mais apropriado . No entanto a regra é mais de memorizar do que de entender. 

Abaixo segue uma pequena lista com alguns verbos que pedem o gerúndio e outros que pedem o infinitivo.


Seguem alguns exemplos:
When two verbs are used together, the second verb is often in the gerund form (-ing) or the infinitive. There are no specific rules concerning which verbs take which form. Like irregular verbs, you will need to learn which form a verb takes.
Common Verbs + ‘ing’
go

enjoy

quit

discuss

mind

can’t stand

suggest
Examples:
They go jogging on Saturdays.

I don’t mind helping you.

They can’t stand driving in traffic jams.
Common Verbs + Infinitive
promise

plan

refuse

want

need

decide

hope
Examples:
I promised to help him.

Alice needs to start that task.

He decided to quit his job.

Websites that help to learn English

There are lots of ready-made materials available for you from different websites.

Look at the materials below and choose one that you think would be good to use.

This is a song.

This is an audio series.

This is a game.

This is a short video to explain language.

This is a short video and lesson plan.

Shakespeare invented new words

Shakespeare 3

Nobody knows exactly how many words in the English we use everyday were invented by Shakespeare.

Some people have claimed that Shakespeare invented many thousands of words but a more generally accepted figure is 1,700.

As this National Geographic article explains, Shakespeare may have been the first person to use some words in writing or to popularise their use. Whether he ‘invented’ the words or not, he has certainly had a profound effect on English vocabulary.

Here are some of the words and phrases usually attributed to Shakespeare..

  • bedroom
  • blanket
  • fashionable
  • freezing
  • gossip
  • hostile
  • ladybird
  • lonely
  • manager
  • obscene
  • priceless
  • puke
  • undress
  • unreal
  • watchdog
  • pomp and circumstance
  • the be-all and end-all
  • flesh and blood

An internet search for ‘words invented by Shakespeare’ will bring up many thousands of results. Do a search and see which other words you can find to add to the list.

Watch this video: https://www.futurelearn.com/courses/explore-english-shakespeare/1/steps/59163?utm_campaign=Share+Links&utm_medium=futurelearn-open_step&utm_source=google-plus

© British Council

The Future of English

Here is a long but good text from an online course I am taking at University of Southampton. It is about the changes in English as a Lingua Franca and what to expect in the future.

What are your expectations Share with us.

A piece in the EL Gazette in October 2001 (p. 3) under the heading ‘It’s now official: English is hard’ announced: ‘you can now motivate your students by telling them that English is the hardest European language to learn’. It went on to report a study carried out at the University of Dundee, Scotland, which compared the literacy levels of British primary school children with those from fourteen European countries (Finland, Greece, Italy, Spain, Portugal, France, Belgium, Germany, Austria, Norway, Iceland, Sweden, the Netherlands, and Denmark). Children with one year’s schooling had been presented with lists of common words in the mother tongue. It was found that all but the native English speakers were able to read 90 per cent of the word correctly, while the British children could only manage 30 per cent. The researchers concluded that the gap between the English-speaking children and those from the other fourteen countries was the result of difficulties intrinsic to the English language. And at a conference of the Spelling Society, held at Coventry University in the UK in June 2008, in which new research by the literacy scholar Marsha Bell was reported, the same point was made again, with English being described as the worst of all the alphabetical languages for children to learn.

Rather than ‘motivate’ learners, such difficulties could, if widely publicised, discourage them from attempting to learn the language at all. The difficulties divide into three main categories: orthographic, phonological, and grammatical. Spelling difficulties are of various kinds although all relate to the fact that English orthography can often not be predicted from the way in which a word is pronounced. There are, for example, several ways of pronouncing the sequences ‘ea’ (e.g. as in ‘bead’, ‘head’, ‘bear’, ‘fear’, ‘pearl’), and ‘ough’ (e.g. as in ‘cough’, ‘bough’, ‘tough’, ‘dough’, ‘through’, ‘thorough’). A large number of words contain silent letters, such as those which begin with a silent ‘p’ or ‘k’ (‘psychology’, ‘pneumonia’, ‘pseud’, ‘knife’, ‘know’, etc.), another group which end with silent ‘b’ (‘comb’, ‘thumb’, ‘limb’, ‘climb’, etc.), and a third with a silent medial letter (e.g. ‘whistle’, ‘castle’, ‘fasten’, ‘muscle’). Other problems are doubled consonants (e.g. ‘committee’, ‘accommodation’, ‘occasional’, ‘parallel’), and the spelling of unstressed vowels (e.g. the underlined vowels in ‘woman’, ‘persuade’, ‘condition’, ‘success’, ‘infinity’, all of which are pronounced as schwa in RP and many other, but not all, native accents.

As regards pronunciation, difficulties relate particularly to English vowels. Not only does native English have more vowel phonemes than many other languages (twenty in RP as compared with, for instance, five in Spanish and Italian), but it has a particularly large number of diphthongs (eight in RP) and makes extensive use of the central vowel, schwa, in unstressed syllables regardless of the spelling – as was demonstrated in the previous paragraph. In addition, many accent varieties of English including RP andGeneral American (GA) make copious use of weak forms in connected speech. That is, schwa replaces the vowel quality in words such as prepositions (‘to’, ‘of’, ‘from’), pronouns (‘her’, ‘them’, etc.), auxiliaries (‘was’, ‘are, ‘has’, etc.), articles (‘a’, ‘the’) and the like. There are also several other features of connected speech such as elision (loss of sounds), assimilation (modifications to sounds), and liaision (linking of sounds across words). All these aspects of English pronunciation conspire to make it more difficult both to produce and to understand than the pronunciation of many other languages.

Grammatically, difficulties relate very particularly to verb forms and functions. Firstly, English has a large number of tenses all of which have both simple and continuous aspect (present, past, perfect, past perfect, future, future perfect) and none of which have a straightforward link with time reference. Second, there are many modal verbs (‘may’, ‘will’, ‘can’, ‘should’, ‘ought to’, etc.) each with its own problems of form and function. Third, one of the most problematic areas for learner of English is that ofmulti-word (or phrasal) verbs such as ‘get’ (‘get up’, ‘get down’, ‘get on’, ‘get off’, ‘get over’, ‘get through’, etc.) and ‘take’ (‘take up’, ‘take on’, ‘take off’, ‘take out’, etc.). Each has several meanings both literal and metaphorical, along with complicated rules as to whether the verb and particle can or must be separated for an object, depending on whether the verb is classed as adverbial or prepositional.

Because of these difficulties, it would not be surprising if there was eventually a move to abandon English in favour of an international language with fewer complicating linguistic factors along with a slightly les obvious colonialist discourse attached to it (although we see strand 6 [in the book] for another possibility, i.e. that users of ELF will adapt English to suit their own lingua franca purposes rather than accept that they should acquire and use a native version). Spanish appears to be a major contender, with its simpler pronunciation, spelling and verb systems, and its increasing influence in both the EU and America. As Moreno-Fernandez and Otero (2008: 81) point out

The sum of native Spanish speakers and non-native Spanish speakers plus those learning the language gives a total figure of 438.9 million Spanish speakers according to the estimations based on the latest consolidated census information and on other sources such as the Cervantes Institute.

And according to an article in the Times Higher Education Supplement (14 December 2001, p.23), ‘Spanish is … the second international language of business as its importance in the United States grows’. In Europe, there is a massive increase in demand for Spanish, with the number of people travelling to Spain and sitting Spanish-language examinations rising by 15 per cent a year, according to the Instituto Cervantes (Spanish equivalent of the British Council). In addition, the Dominican Republic, Cuba and Mexico are becoming increasingly popular tourist destinations, while the teaching of Spanish as a foreign language is spreading to many parts of the world. In this process, it is being ‘overtly promoted by the Spanish government as part of its aim to strengthen and enhance a pan-Hispanic community across the world’ as well as ‘a desire to consolidate a power bloc with some claim to compete with the overwhelming march of global English’ (Mar-Molinero 2006: 82). As Mar-Molinero continues, ‘[t]he Spanish language learning/teaching industry is thus a flourishing and expanding one’ and ‘whilst smaller in scale, in many senses it resembles the enormous EFL/ELT industry’.

Meanwhile, in the US there were found to be 50.5 million native speakers of Spanish in the 2010 census (see unit C1 [in the book]), making this the second largest L1 group in the US after English, and comprising almost a fifth of the total population. Already non-Hispanic whites are in a minority in California and there are also particularly large numbers of Hispanics in Arizona and Texas. However, it is not only a case of numerical increase: the US Hispanic community appears also to be experiencing ‘a resurgence of cultural pride and confidence’ (The Guardian, 8 March 2001, p.12), while politicians are beginning to pay far greater attention to the Hispanic community’s needs than they have done hitherto. Meanwhile, Latinos such as the Puerto Rican Ricky Martin and Jennifer Lopez have, respectively, topped world pop music charts and won important film awards, and still more recently, the Latin music of artists such as Daddy Yankee, Don Omar, and Molotov has been achieving worldwide popularity (see Mar-Molinero 2008: 39-40).

Further evidence that English may eventually give way to another language as the world’s lingua franca is provided by the internet. As Crystal (2006: 229-231) points out

[The Web] was originally a totally English medium – as was the Internet as a whole, given its US origins. But with the Internet’s globalization, the presence of other languages has steadily risen. In the mid-1990s, a widely quoted figure was that just over 80 per cent of the Net was in English.

However, as he goes on to say,

The estimates for languages other than English have steadily risen since then, with some commentators predicting that before long the Web (and the Internet as a whole) will be predominantly non-English, as communications infrastructure develops in Europe, Asia, Africa, and South America.

He also cites a 2004 Global Reach survey which found that 64.8 per cent of a total online population of 801.4 million was in countries where English is not the mother tongue, and notes that Chinese is expected by most sources to become the majority language of internet users. And a few years later, this seems even more probable. In a table showing the top ten internet languages at the start of 2010 (Internet World Stats 2010, in Crystal 2011: 79), although English still has the largest number of internet users (496 million users, 27.5 per cent of all internet users), Chinese is catching up fast (408 million users, 22.6 per cent of all internet users).

The rapid increase in the amount of Chinese on the internet (1,162 per cent growth between 2000 and 2009, as contrasted with English’s 252 per cent growth) leads Crystal to believe it will soon replace English in the leading position on the internet. On the other hand, Graddol’s earlier point that ‘there remains more English than is proportionate to the first languages of users’ (2006:44) is still true. In other worls, a large amount of internet use in English is by NNESs [non-native English speakers] rather than NESs [native English speakers]. And we cannot discount the possibility that a sizeable proportion of NNESs may continue to use English on the internet as well as, or instead of, their L1, especially for intercultural communication.

Thus, although it is possible that English-medium internet use has passed its peak, it is by no means certain. Meanwhile, the implications for both the spread and type of English used in other forms of communication are as yet far from clear.

References

Crystal, D. (2006) Language and the Internet. 2nd edition. Cambridge: CUP

Crystal, D. (2011) Internet Linguistics. London: Routledge.

Mar-Molinero, C. (2006) ‘The European Linguistic legacy in a global era: linguistic imperialism, Spanish, and the Instituto Cervantes,’ in Mar-Molinero, C. and Stevenson, P. (eds) Language Ideologies, Policies and Practices. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Mar-Molinero, C. (2008) ‘Subverting Cervantes: language authority in global Spanish,’ International Multilingual Research Journal 2: 27-47

Moreno-Fernandez, F. and Otero, J. (2008) ‘The status and future of Spanish among the main international languages: quantitative dimensions,’ International Multi-lingual Research Journal 2: 67-83


Further information

Jenkins, J. (2015) Global Englishes. A resource book for students, 3rd edition, Abingdon, GB: Routledge

Further free resources from ‘Global Englishes’ by Jennifer Jenkins

Find this book (with a discount of 20% for users of this course, enter codeGEFL1 at checkout) on the Routledge website

3 Maneiras de lidar com quem não gostamos no ambiente de trabalho

Às vezes temos que enfrentar situações com colegas em nosso trabalho que nos fazem perder a cabeça e nos desencorajam a agir de forma acertada.

Seguem 3 dicas sobre essa  matéria da Revista Time de como agir nessas situações conflitantes.

Espero que sejam úteis para você.

3 Ways to Deal with Someone You Really Dislike at Work

By Jennifer Winter

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Sometimes, our least favorite employees are in that position at no fault of their own. I figured this out when starting a new job as a manager. I had one employee who was outgoing, ambitious, and hard working—and yet, I couldn’t stand her. For the longest time, I had no idea why.

So, I started making a mental note every time she did something that made me cringe and looked for patterns. It turned out, I found her most annoying every time she asked me a question—specifically one I couldn’t readily answer. I realized that, while her constant questions were definitely not on my favorite to-do list, the real issue wasn’t really with her, it was with me—I didn’t like feeling unprepared and put on the spot.

After that, I made a point to bone up on the issues she typically raised and enlisted her help in figuring out solutions to common snags the entire group faced. Not only did I improve my skills and knowledge as a manager, but I empowered her to take on more responsibility—and kept her busy in the process.

If you’ve got an employee you avoid like the plague, try to figure out what exactly it is about that person that’s driving you batty. The answer might surprise you, and trust me, once you realize what’s irking you, it’ll be much easier to address.

Grab a Pen

I’m a big fan of taking notes, and will rarely go anywhere around the office without my trusty notebook and pen in hand. While it’s obvious why this is beneficial in a meeting, I was surprised to realize my notebook had handy meditative powers, too.

A few years back, I was relatively new as a manager, so I hadn’t come across too many employees I didn’t really like, but one guy was a definite non-favorite. Among many other things, he was a talker. Every time he came by my desk to ask me “a question,” I’d find myself nodding off 20 minutes later, without a clue what he really needed. Not good.

So, I started keeping my notebook handy on my desk. Whenever he came by, I’d politely stop him, grab my pen, and start taking notes of our conversation.

My goal was twofold; first, I wanted to keep myself on track and force myself to pay attention to what he was saying—after all, I was still his manager, and I was there to help him—and secondly, I hoped that my furious note taking would help keep him on track, too. After all, it’s hard to ramble on and on when you know someone’s transcribing your every word.

One of the hardest tasks when dealing with your least favorite employees is making sure you give them the attention they deserve. Keep a pen and notebook handy, and you’ll not only make sure you’re paying attention, but you’ll have a sly diversionary tactic to keep your mind off how annoyed you are at the conversation.

Call For Backup

I know, this probably sounds strange, but if done correctly, it can be an elegant solution to dealing with your least favorite employee.

I stumbled across this tactic after I’d been a manager for a while and was lucky enough to have some great people working with me, including my second in command. She was always eager to learn and jumped at any opportunity to take on additional responsibilities. So, when I was getting frustrated with a particularly irksome employee, she asked if she could take a stab at coaching. The issue we were dealing with at the time was minor and, she suggested, a perfect opportunity for her to try her hand at managing.

This, it turned out, was a great approach. Not only did she get the chance to gradually test the management waters, I was able to observe and guide her throughout the process. And an unexpected benefit? I learned a ton watching her deal with this employee. She approached him in a completely different way, which he responded to quite well. I ended up adopting some of her techniques, and he and I eventually ended up getting along pretty well.

The lesson here is, when all else fails, don’t be afraid to call on someone else to pinch hit. Just remember, this should be used as a learning opportunity for both you and your (temporary) substitute, so don’t fall into the trap of just passing off all your difficult employees to other people.

When you manage, all your employees probably won’t be stars, and some of them will likely drive you crazy from time to time. Keep these tips in mind when you’re getting frustrated with one of your employees, and they’ll never have a clue they aren’t your favorite

Read the full article at http://time.com/2945147/tips-employee-management/

BULLYING – O que Escolas e Professores Podem Fazer

Segue um texto para treino de leitura e compreensão sobre um tema bastante atual.

BullyingBullying can be found in every school. It is often part of how young people interact in our society. Each school must recognize the extent and impact and take steps to prevent that from happening. When bullying is ignored or underestimated, students will suffer permanent torment and harassment. It can cause lifelong damage to the victims. Both bullies and victims are more likely to become criminals. A failure of the school to deal with bullying endangers the safety of all its students, allowing a hostile environment that certainly interferes with learning. There is clear evidence that school can dramatically reduce the incidence of bullying. We need to make schools free of bullying, take immediate action; every student has the right to a safe environment free from bullying.

The size of the problem

Scientific studies show that bullying is an international problem that affects all schools. There is a remarkable similarity in the incidence of bullying from country to country and from school to school. Bullying knows no international boundaries, socio-economic status or ethnic boundaries. This usually has three common characteristics: it is a deliberate and hurtful behavior is repeated and it is difficult for those being bullied to defend themselves. There are three main types of bullying: physical type: hitting, kicking, taking belongings; verbal type: name calling, insults, racist comments and indirect type / emotional: spreading nasty stories, excluding groups.

How to deal with an incident of bullying

Students bullied are typically passive or become so because of intimidation. Avoid concentrating the focus on the shortcomings of the victim of bullying. Focus on the immediate problem is that the behavior of the aggressor. The objective of any intervention must stop the abuse immediately. Make sure that the abuser changes his behavior. Provide support for the victim, ensuring the same access to an environment free of bullying at all times.

Teacher and School Action

Not only the teacher, but all school staff must be committed to a common response to bullying when it happens, because immediate action is crucial. Clear procedures should take place when a case of bullying is discovered. The school needs to provide the necessary support for the individual teacher, so that he is able to maintain a classroom environment safe. There should be clear guidelines that stipulate that teachers have responsibilities when it comes to a case of bullying. A teacher who is conscious of their role should observe when a student is isolated, sad and should seek the reasons for this. Teachers must recognize that a safe classroom is the most effective way to develop a positive learning environment free from bullying. Bullying 2

Sources:

http://www.education.com/reference/article/Ref_Bullying_Schools/ http://www.stopbullying.gov/prevention/at-school/ http://www.popcenter.org/problems/bullying/

 

 

Provérbios em Inglês

dscn04171.jpgLearning proverbs  (or sayings)  is a great way to get insight and improve your English skills.

Some proverbs are easy to understand and similar in Portuguese.

Below are twenty easy proverbs. Each one has its definition. Good studies!

  • Accidents will happen.

Mistakes and bad events naturally happen. It’s not your fault.

  • Better late than never.

It’s good you came to something.

  • The customer is always right.

People who pay money for something you sell deserve respect.

  • You can only die once.

Nothing in life is so bad.

  • Easy does it.

Be careful, don’t go to fast.

  • Every man has his price.

Every person will do anything for enough money.

  • Fight fire with fire.

If someone is aggressive with you, be aggressive with that person.

  • If you can’t be good, be careful.

When you do something that mom and dad won’t like, don’t be too crazy.

  • Home is where the heart is.

Your true place is with people you love.

  • The king can do no wrong.

People with a lot of power, the boss, etc. do wrong, but are not criticized by others.

  • Knowledge is power.

Learning will help you succeed in life.

  • Live and learn.

Living teaches you lessons, take advantage of the lessons.

  • He lives long who lives well.

Living healthfully will lead to a long life.

  • Money isn’t everything.

Money is not the only important thing in life.

  • Never say never.

Life will surprise you, don’t say no to things.

  • Never too old to learn.

No matter how old you are you should learn new things.

  • No news is good news.

If you don’t hear anything from someone, it means that everything is OK.

  • Out of sight, out of mind.

If you don’t see or hear about something, you won’t worry about it.

  • You get what you pay for.

Quality items are never cheap.

  • Every picture tells a story.

Each situation tells you something about the people and places involved.

 

Preposições de Lugar e de Tempo

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Você sabe usar adequadamente as preposições  in, on, at? Elas podem ser usadas para designar tempo ou lugar.

Abaixo seguem algumas dicas para estudo e aprendizado do uso de IN, ON, AT.

PREPOSTION OF PLACE

In

Use ‘in’ with spaces that you can physically walk into, or place something into:

in a room / in a building

in a garden / in a park

Use ‘in’ with bodies of water:

in the water

in the sea

in a river

Use ‘in’ with lines:

in a row / in a line

in a queue

 

At

Use ‘at’ with places in a town, city or other community:

at the bus-stop

at the door

at the cinema

at the end of the street

Use ‘at’ with places on a page:

at the top of the page

at the bottom of the page

Use ‘at’ in groups of people:

at the back of the class

at the front of the class

 

On

Use ‘on’ with vertical or horizontal surfaces that you can lay something onto, or attach something to:

on the ceiling / on the wall / on the floor

on the table

Use ‘on’ with small islands:

I stayed on Maui.

Use ‘on’ with directions:

on the left

on the right

straight on

IMPORTANT NOTES

In / at / on the corner

We say ‘in the corner of a room’, but ‘at the corner (or ‘on the corner’) of a street’

In / at / on the front

We say ‘in the front / in the back’ of a car

We say ‘at the front / at the back’ of buildings / groups of people

We say ‘on the front / on the back’ of a piece of paper

 

PREPOSTION OF TIME

In

Use ‘in’ with months, years and periods of time such as decades or centuries:
in January
in 1978
in the twenties
Use ‘in’ a period of time in the future to express that an action will occur after that amount of time:
in a few weeks
in a couple of days

At
Use ‘at’ with an exact time:
at six o’clock
at 10.30
at two p.m.

On
Use ‘on’ with days of the week:
on Monday
on Fridays
Use ‘on’ with specific calendar days:
on Christmas day
on October 22nd

Se quiser testar seu aprendizado, faça o teste online. A correção é automática e você já fica sabendo quanto tirou. Depois me diz qual foi a sua nota.

http://esl.about.com/library/quiz/blgrquiz_prep1.htm