As primeiras origens e história
O termo “sexta-feira negra” foi realmente associado à crise financeira, não às compras de vendas.
Dois financistas de Wall Street, Jim Fisk e Jay Gould, compraram juntos uma quantidade significativa de ouro dos EUA na esperança de que o preço global subisse e, por sua vez, pudessem vendê-lo com lucros enormes.
Na sexta-feira, 24 de setembro de 1869, no que foi chamado de “Black Friday”, o mercado de ouro dos EUA entrou em colapso e as ações de Fisk e Gould deixaram os barões de Wall Street em falência.
Não foi até anos posteriores que o período pós-Ação de Graças se associou ao nome.
Nos últimos anos, circulou um boato impreciso, sugerindo que os proprietários de plantações do sul poderiam comprar escravos a um preço com desconto após o Dia de Ação de Graças, no século XIX.
Ouça inglês o máximo possível
Não se assuste quando não entender
Foque na pronúncia
Noticiários em inglês
Frases ou dizeres para nos levar a pensar.
“A ship is safe in harbor, but that’s not what ships are for.”
John A. Shedd
“Courage is found in unlikely places.”
“You may not always have a comfortable life and you will not always be able to solve all of the world’s problems at once but don’t ever underestimate the importance you can have because history has shown us that courage can be contagious and hope can take on a life of its own.”
“Courage is what it takes to stand up and speak; courage is also what it takes to sit down and listen.”
“Since it is so likely that children will meet cruel enemies let them at least have heard of brave knights and heroic courage.”
“Never bend your head. Always hold it high. Look the world straight in the eye.”
“Courage does not always roar. Sometimes courage is the quiet voice at the end of the day saying, ‘I will try again tomorrow.”
Mary Anne Radmacher
Cat café’ and other words added to OxfordDictionaries.com
Mic drops, awesomesauce, manspreading, and more
Mx, Grexit, and other words in the news
Gaming and the Internet
Quais são as diferenças específicas de aprendizado?
Vários termos são usados para descrever alunos com dificuldades de aprendizagem em diferentes partes do mundo. Neste breve artigo, mostramos algumas das maneiras pelas quais as dificuldades de aprendizagem são agrupadas e definidas no Reino Unido e nos Estados Unidos da América.
No passado, as dificuldades de aprendizagem foram classificadas em sub-tipos distintos, tais como:
“Dislexia” ou “deficiência de leitura”
“Disgrafia” ou “incapacidade de escrever”
“Discalculia” ou “incapacidade de aprendizagem matemática”
«Dispraxia» ou «Transtorno de coordenação do desenvolvimento» (dificuldades de coordenação de movimentos)
Estes sub-tipos de dificuldades de aprendizagem representaram diferentes áreas do desempenho acadêmico que também influenciam a vida das pessoas fora da escola. Verificou-se, no entanto, que existe uma considerável sobreposição entre estes tipos de dificuldades de aprendizagem. Isso tornou muito difícil diferenciar os vários subtipos de maneira confiável.
A solução proposta no Reino Unido foi agrupar essas várias dificuldades de aprendizagem sob o rótulo de Diferenças de Aprendizagem Específicas. O Departamento de Educação do Grupo de Trabalho no Reino Unido (2005) propôs a seguinte definição:
“Os spLDs têm dificuldades particulares, que podem incluir ortografia, adquirir habilidades fluentes de leitura e redação e / ou manipular números que podem indicar que seu desempenho está bem abaixo de suas habilidades em outras áreas. Eles também podem ter problemas de memória de trabalho, habilidades organizacionais, linguagem receptiva e expressiva ou habilidades orais e auditivas, mantendo a concentração e a coordenação. ”
Essa definição inclui dislexia, dispraxia, discalculia e transtorno de déficit de atenção. A Associação Americana de Psiquiatria tomou uma decisão semelhante no DSM-5 (Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais – American Psychiatric Association, 2013) e agrupou diferentes dificuldades de aprendizagem sob o termo “transtornos de aprendizagem específicos” (SLD).
Estes incluem três subgrupos de desordem:
distúrbio de aprendizagem específico com prejuízo na leitura
O SLD na leitura inclui dificuldades de leitura no nível da palavra (isto é, dislexia) e dificuldades na compreensão da leitura em nível de texto. SLD em matemática é equivalente a discalculia na definição de SpLD utilizada no Reino Unido. O SLD, por escrito, está preocupado com a exatidão ortográfica, precisão gramatical e pontuação e clareza e organização da expressão escrita, e sua contrapartida no Reino Unido é disgrafia.
No DSM-5, o transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (TDAH) é classificado nas doenças do neurodesenvolvimento, juntamente com os Transtornos do Espectro Autista (TEA). TDAH e TEA não pertencem diretamente ao grupo de LLDs, pois seus efeitos impactam áreas mais amplas da vida cotidiana, não apenas aprendendo dentro e fora dos contextos escolares.
Various terms are used to describe students with learning difficulties in different parts of the world. In this brief article we show you some of the ways in which learning difficulties are grouped and defined in the United Kingdom and in the United States of America.
In the past learning difficulties were classified into distinct sub-types such as:
• ‘dyslexia’ or ‘reading disability’
• ‘dysgraphia’ or ‘writing disability’
• ‘dyscalculia’ or ‘mathematics learning disability’
• ‘dyspraxia’ or ‘developmental co-ordination disorder’ (difficulties with co-ordination of movement)
These sub-types of learning difficulties represented different areas of academic achievement which also influence people’s lives outside school. It was found, however, that there is a considerable overlap between these types of learning difficulties. This made it very difficult to differentiate the various sub-types in a reliable manner.
The solution proposed in the United Kingdom was to group these various learning difficulties under the label of Specific Learning Differences. The Department for Education Working Group in the UK (2005) proposed the following definition:
“SpLDs have particular difficulties, which may include spelling, acquiring fluent reading and writing skills and/or manipulating numbers which may indicate their performance is well below their abilities in other areas. They may also have problems with working memory, organisational skills, receptive and expressive language or oral and auditory skills, maintaining concentration and co-ordination.”
This definition includes dyslexia, dyspraxia, dyscalculia and attention deficit disorder. The American Psychiatric Association took a similar decision in DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – American Psychiatric Association, 2013) and grouped different learning difficulties under the umbrella term specific learning disorders (SLD).
These include three subgroups of disorder:
• specific learning disorder with impairment in reading
• written expression
SLD in reading includes word-level reading difficulties (ie dyslexia) and difficulties with text-level reading comprehension. SLD in mathematics is equivalent to dyscalculia in the SpLD definition used in the UK. SLD in writing is concerned with spelling accuracy, grammar and punctuation accuracy and clarity and organisation of written expression, and its counterpart in the UK is dysgraphia.
In DSM-5 attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is classified under neurodevelopmental disorders together with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). ADHD and ASD do not directly belong to the group of SpLDs as their effects impact wider areas of everyday life, not just learning in and outside school contexts.
Segue um glossário com uma lista de termos usados na confecção de um plano de aula eficaz, necessário para uma boa aula com a interação e motivação do aluno.
What the teacher wants to achieve in the lesson or in the course. The main aim is the most important aim.
The aim or purpose of a stage, step or short section of a lesson.
The secondary focus of the lesson, less important than the main aim. It could be the language or skills learners use in order to achieve the main aim of the lesson, or a skill or language area which is practised while the teacher is working on achieving the main lesson aim.
What the teacher would like to improve in his/her teaching.
Anticipated problems and solutions
When teachers are planning a lesson, they think about what their learners might find difficult about the lesson and about how they can help them learn more effectively at certain points in the lesson.
When teachers think about what they believe their learners will or will not know or how they will behave in a particular lesson.
A description of the learners and information about their learning, including their age, ability, strengths and weaknesses in language and skills.
The different ways learners and the teacher work together in class, e.g. learner to learner in pairs or groups, or teacher to learner in open class, in plenary. When teachers plan lessons, they think about interaction patterns and write them on their plan.
A breakdown of vocabulary and grammar covered in the lesson which provides information about the structure of the language, what it means and how it is used.
A set of actions that describes the way to do something. Teachers write lesson plans and provide details of exactly what is going to happen in each stage of a lesson. The details of the different actions are the procedures of the lesson.
The materials or tools which teachers use in class to help learners learn.
A section of a lesson. Lessons have different stages or steps such as lead-in, presentation, practice.
Teachers plan timetables which provide details of the lessons they will teach in the near future. Timetable fit is about how a lesson fits logically into the sequence of lessons in a timetable.
The likely time different activities or stages in a lesson plan should take. When teachers plan lessons, they think about how long each activity will take and they usually write this on their plan.
This is when teachers identify and address the different needs, interests or abilities of their learners by providing a range of activity types and using a range of approaches.
This is the commonly accepted abbreviation for teacher talk time and refers to the amount of time in a lesson that the teacher talks to the learners. It is important that TTT is helpful to the learners.
This is the commonly accepted abbreviation for student talk time and refers to the amount of time in a lesson that the students talk. There needs to be a balance of TTT and STT in a language lesson.
This is when teachers use language they know the students have already studied to ease the cognitive load. This can be done by avoiding informal, colloquial language or complex grammar structures.
When the teacher asks learners questions, or prompts them, to come up with ideas or language. It can be used to activate their existing knowledge of a language point in order to base new knowledge on what they already know.
When the teacher observes learners during an activity to check their understanding of the activity and assess their progress.
This happens at the end of the activity cycle when the teacher gives the learners feedback on their performance by going through the answers with the class and/or finding out what they have talked about. This stage can be used for further clarification if the learners still need help with the language point.
Source: British Council
© UCLES 2018
Algumas dessas tradições, nós tbm fazemos no Brasil, outras já estudamos durante as aulas. Vale conferir e praticar sua leitura.
Many New Year traditions that we take for granted actually date back to ancient times. This year, ring out the old and ring in the new with a new New Year tradition—or two!
MAKE SOME NOISE
Making a lot of noise—from fireworks to gun shots to church bells—seems to be a favorite pastime around the world.
• In ancient Thailand, guns were fired to frighten off demons.
• In China, firecrackers routed the forces of darkness.
• In the early American colonies, the sound of pistol shots rang through the air.
• Today, Italians let their church bells peal, the Swiss beat drums, and the North Americans sound sirens and party horns to bid the old year farewell.
EAT LUCKY FOOD
Many New Year traditions surround food. Here are a few:
• The tradition of eating 12 grapes at midnight comes from Spain. Revelers stuff their mouths with 12 grapes in the final moments of the year—one grape for every chime of the clock!
• In the southern US, black-eyed peas and pork foretell good fortune. See our recipe for Good Luck Hoppin’ John!
• In Scotland—where Hogmanay is celebrated—people parade down the streets swinging balls of fire.
• Eating any ring-shaped treat (such as a doughnut) symbolizes “coming full circle” and leads to good fortune. In Dutch homes, fritters called olie bollen are served.
• The Irish enjoy pastries called bannocks.
• In India and Pakistan, rice promises prosperity.
• Apples dipped in honey are a Rosh Hashanah (Jewish New Year) tradition.
• In Swiss homes, dollops of whipped cream, symbolizing the richness of the year to come, are dropped on the floors—and allowed to remain there!
HAVE A DRINK
Although the pop of a champagne cork signals the arrival of the New Year around the world, some countries have their own beverage-based traditions.
• Wassail, a punch-like drink named after the Gaelic term for “good health,” is served in some parts of England.
• Spiced “hot pint” is the Scottish version of Wassail. Traditionally, the Scots drank to each others’ prosperity and also offered this warm drink to neighbors along with a small gift.
• In Holland, toasts are made with hot, spiced wine.
GIVE A GIFT
New Year’s Day was once the time to swap presents.
• Gifts of gilded nuts or coins marked the start of the new year in Rome.
• Eggs, the symbol of fertility, were exchanged by the Persians.
• Early Egyptians traded earthenware flasks.
• In Scotland, coal, shortbread and silverware were traditionally exchanged for good luck.
PUT YOUR BEST FOOT FORWARD
In Scotland, the custom of first-footing is an important part of the celebration of Hogmanay, or New Year’s Eve Day.
After midnight, family and friends visit each other’s home. The “first foot” to cross a threshold after midnight will predict the next year’s fortune. Although the tradition varies, those deemed especially fortunate as “first footers” are new brides, new mothers, those who are tall and dark (and
handsome?) or anyone born on January 1.
TURN OVER A NEW LEAF
The dawn of a new year is an opportune time to take stock of your life.
• Jews who observe Rosh Hashanah make time for personal introspection and prayer, as well as visiting graves.
• Christian churches hold “watch-night” services, a custom that began in 1770 at Old St. Georges Methodist Church in Philadelphia.
• The practice of making New Year’s resolutions, said to have begun with the Babylonians as early as 2600 B.C., is another way to reflect on the past and plan ahead.
NEW YEAR’S FOLKLORE
Some customs and beliefs are simply passed down through the ages. Here are some of our favorite age-old sayings and proverbs.
• On New Year’s Eve, kiss the person you hope to keep kissing.
• If New Year’s Eve night wind blow south, It betokeneth warmth and growth.
• For abundance in the new year, fill your pockets and cupboards today.
• If the old year goes out like a lion, the new year will come in like a lamb.
• Begin the new year square with every man. [i.e., pay your debts!] –Robert B. Thomas, founder of The Old Farmer’s Almanac
So, whether we resolve to return borrowed farm equipment (as did the Babylonians) or drop a few pounds, we’re tapping into an ancient and powerful longing for a fresh start!
HAPPY NEW YEAR!!!!
There are many benefits of studying for older learners, such as increased self-confidence, increased feelings of health and well-being, reduced feelings of isolation, and increased engagement in the community.
Many seniors wish to study a foreign language and there is now substantial evidence that they can learn a new language effectively. My experience is that senior learners are excellent language students for a number of reasons.
Senior students have a wealth of life experience and when they bring this to the classroom they enrich the learning experience of the whole class. Our teachers comment that older learners are excellent students to have in the classroom as they are always happy to talk about their experiences and give their opinions on a wide range of topics.
Senior learners do not normally need a certificate, diploma or university credit; their motivation is intrinsic. They may study for intellectual enjoyment, to socialise with their peers or because it is something they have always wanted to do. In fact, senior learners are very often more highly motivated than younger learners. Their high level of motivation is a great advantage as this has been identified as one of the most important factors in determining successful language learning. The motivation of senior learners is reflected by the fact that they rarely miss a class, participate very actively in the classroom and always do their homework.
We have discovered that there is a strong social component in seniors attending English classes. They often attend class to mix with their peers, forming very strong friendships and socialising together after the class and even in their free time.
Our experience is that senior learners have an extremely positive attitude toward language learning and life in general. They treat both their teachers and their classmates with the utmost respect and politeness. Our teachers often comment on how kind, considerate, and hardworking senior learners are, and what a pleasure they are to teach.
So our experience is that the life experience, motivation to learn, and positive attitude of senior learners provide them with many advantages as language learners. However, there are cognitive, affective and physiological factors which can affect senior language learning. We are going to identify these factors and then look at how you can adapt your courses and practices to meet the needs of older learners.
Helping students hear
Hearing loss may have a direct impact on learning and performance for senior learners. In order to decrease the negative effects of this auditory loss, teachers should try to accommodate the aging ear in a number of ways by:
• speaking clearly and ensuring that the students can see their face and lips.
• adjusting the volume for listenings and videos.
• repeating listening texts.
• using short films and videos which aid listening comprehension as students can see the face and lips of the speakers.
• ensuring that your classrooms have little background noise.
Helping students see
Defective vision increases dramatically as people age. Visual ability is particularly important in education as it is generally accepted that approximately 80% of all learning occurs through vision. To accommodate this loss in vision, here are some steps to follow:
• Use a larger print type for printed text.
• Make sure that senior students sit as close to the board as possible.
• Write very clearly on the board.
• Ensure that classrooms have a lot of natural light and that there is direct lighting for the whiteboard.
As people age the body tends to lose some strength, flexibility and mobility. They may also suffer from arthritis and rheumatism. These changes may make it difficult for older learners to move around the classroom. To compensate for these changes we recommend doing the following things:
• Ensure that older learners have comfortable chairs and tables.
• Allow more time for older students to do whole class communicative activities where students have to stand up and move around the classroom.
Research indicates that cognitive development, recall, and problem solving may show decline with aging. In order to overcome this cognitive decline which may make it more difficult to learn a new language, teachers can help seniors develop and maintain their cognitive ability in a number of ways:
• Integrate memory exercises into classes. Use visual and auditory mnemonic devices, examples and memory associations to help seniors rehearse and later retrieve vocabulary and expressions from long-term memory.
• Systematically repeat and recycle grammar, vocabulary and expressions.
• Encourage students to draw on their wealth of experiences and to use cognitive strategies they have used successfully in the past in their current language learning environment.
• Allow more time for students to produce language without being interrupted.
Building confidence / Reducing stress
Many older learners fear failure and are more anxious than younger learners, perhaps this is because they accept the stereotype of the older learner as a poor language learner or because of previous unsuccessful attempts to learn a foreign language. Older learners need to feel comfortable and trust the teacher and the other students before they participate fully in the language classroom. A key role of the teacher is to reduce anxiety and build trust and self-confidence in the senior learner.
Here are some of the things teachers can do to reduce stress and build self-confidence in older adult learners:
• Find out what our older learners’ motivations are for learning a language and adjust our methodology accordingly.
• Use humanistic techniques to build empathy between the teacher and students, and among the students.
• Reduce the focus on error correction to build learners’ self-confidence and to promote language production.
• Avoid timed tests which may make senior learners anxious.
• Give senior students more time to complete activities.
• Promote a friendly and relaxed atmosphere in the classroom.
My experience is that any difficulties which senior learners may experience in the language classroom can be overcome through adjustments to the learning environment and material, attention to physical, affective and cognitive factors, and the use of an effective teaching methodology which focuses on the learning process rather than academic achievement.
Kieran Donaghy is teacher at UAB Idiomes, Barcelona. He is also the creator of http://film-english.com/, an award-winning website providing free resources for teachers wishing to use video effectively in their classrooms.
Teachers Day Wishes 🍎
• The best teachers don’t give you the answer, they spark within you the desire to find the answer yourself. Happy Teachers Day!
• I am grateful to be your student. Thank you for challenging me to be my best and instilling in me a passion for learning. Happy Teachers Day!
• My child’s future is so much brighter because of you. Thank you for being an outstanding teacher. Best wishes for Teachers Day.
• Keep calm and study on. Happy Teachers’ Day!
• You deserve recognition for all the sacrifices that you make, you are more than a teacher to me and I THANK YOU!
• Today I celebrate you for being selfless, devoted, hardworking, and the wisest person in the classroom. I am grateful to be your student. Happy Teacher’s Day!
• Wishing you joy and happiness, you are an amazing teacher, and you only deserve the best.
• You are the spark, the inspiration, the guide, the candle to my life. I am deeply thankful that you are my teacher.
Mensagens do dia dos professores
• Os melhores professores não lhe dão a resposta, eles despertam em você o desejo de encontrar a resposta você mesmo. Feliz Dia dos professores!
• Sou grato por ser seu aluno. Obrigado por me desafiar a ser o meu melhor e instilar em mim uma paixão por aprender. Feliz Dia dos professores!
• O futuro do meu filho é muito mais brilhante por você. Obrigado por ser um excelente professor. Os melhores desejos para o Dia dos Professores.
• Mantenha a calma e estude. Feliz Dia dos professores!
• Você merece reconhecimento por todos os sacrifícios que você faz, você é mais do que um professor e EU TE OBRIGADO!
• Hoje eu o celebrei por ser abnegado, dedicado, trabalhador e a pessoa mais sábia na sala de aula. Sou grato por ser seu aluno. Feliz Dia dos professores!
• Desejando-lhe alegria e felicidade, você é um professor incrível, e você merece o melhor.
• Você é a faísca, a inspiração, o guia, a vela para minha vida. Estou profundamente grato por você ser minha professora.