Quais são as diferenças específicas de aprendizado?
Vários termos são usados para descrever alunos com dificuldades de aprendizagem em diferentes partes do mundo. Neste breve artigo, mostramos algumas das maneiras pelas quais as dificuldades de aprendizagem são agrupadas e definidas no Reino Unido e nos Estados Unidos da América.
No passado, as dificuldades de aprendizagem foram classificadas em sub-tipos distintos, tais como:
“Dislexia” ou “deficiência de leitura”
“Disgrafia” ou “incapacidade de escrever”
“Discalculia” ou “incapacidade de aprendizagem matemática”
«Dispraxia» ou «Transtorno de coordenação do desenvolvimento» (dificuldades de coordenação de movimentos)
Estes sub-tipos de dificuldades de aprendizagem representaram diferentes áreas do desempenho acadêmico que também influenciam a vida das pessoas fora da escola. Verificou-se, no entanto, que existe uma considerável sobreposição entre estes tipos de dificuldades de aprendizagem. Isso tornou muito difícil diferenciar os vários subtipos de maneira confiável.
A solução proposta no Reino Unido foi agrupar essas várias dificuldades de aprendizagem sob o rótulo de Diferenças de Aprendizagem Específicas. O Departamento de Educação do Grupo de Trabalho no Reino Unido (2005) propôs a seguinte definição:
“Os spLDs têm dificuldades particulares, que podem incluir ortografia, adquirir habilidades fluentes de leitura e redação e / ou manipular números que podem indicar que seu desempenho está bem abaixo de suas habilidades em outras áreas. Eles também podem ter problemas de memória de trabalho, habilidades organizacionais, linguagem receptiva e expressiva ou habilidades orais e auditivas, mantendo a concentração e a coordenação. ”
Essa definição inclui dislexia, dispraxia, discalculia e transtorno de déficit de atenção. A Associação Americana de Psiquiatria tomou uma decisão semelhante no DSM-5 (Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais – American Psychiatric Association, 2013) e agrupou diferentes dificuldades de aprendizagem sob o termo “transtornos de aprendizagem específicos” (SLD).
Estes incluem três subgrupos de desordem:
distúrbio de aprendizagem específico com prejuízo na leitura
O SLD na leitura inclui dificuldades de leitura no nível da palavra (isto é, dislexia) e dificuldades na compreensão da leitura em nível de texto. SLD em matemática é equivalente a discalculia na definição de SpLD utilizada no Reino Unido. O SLD, por escrito, está preocupado com a exatidão ortográfica, precisão gramatical e pontuação e clareza e organização da expressão escrita, e sua contrapartida no Reino Unido é disgrafia.
No DSM-5, o transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (TDAH) é classificado nas doenças do neurodesenvolvimento, juntamente com os Transtornos do Espectro Autista (TEA). TDAH e TEA não pertencem diretamente ao grupo de LLDs, pois seus efeitos impactam áreas mais amplas da vida cotidiana, não apenas aprendendo dentro e fora dos contextos escolares.
Various terms are used to describe students with learning difficulties in different parts of the world. In this brief article we show you some of the ways in which learning difficulties are grouped and defined in the United Kingdom and in the United States of America.
In the past learning difficulties were classified into distinct sub-types such as:
• ‘dyslexia’ or ‘reading disability’
• ‘dysgraphia’ or ‘writing disability’
• ‘dyscalculia’ or ‘mathematics learning disability’
• ‘dyspraxia’ or ‘developmental co-ordination disorder’ (difficulties with co-ordination of movement)
These sub-types of learning difficulties represented different areas of academic achievement which also influence people’s lives outside school. It was found, however, that there is a considerable overlap between these types of learning difficulties. This made it very difficult to differentiate the various sub-types in a reliable manner.
The solution proposed in the United Kingdom was to group these various learning difficulties under the label of Specific Learning Differences. The Department for Education Working Group in the UK (2005) proposed the following definition:
“SpLDs have particular difficulties, which may include spelling, acquiring fluent reading and writing skills and/or manipulating numbers which may indicate their performance is well below their abilities in other areas. They may also have problems with working memory, organisational skills, receptive and expressive language or oral and auditory skills, maintaining concentration and co-ordination.”
This definition includes dyslexia, dyspraxia, dyscalculia and attention deficit disorder. The American Psychiatric Association took a similar decision in DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – American Psychiatric Association, 2013) and grouped different learning difficulties under the umbrella term specific learning disorders (SLD).
These include three subgroups of disorder:
• specific learning disorder with impairment in reading
• written expression
SLD in reading includes word-level reading difficulties (ie dyslexia) and difficulties with text-level reading comprehension. SLD in mathematics is equivalent to dyscalculia in the SpLD definition used in the UK. SLD in writing is concerned with spelling accuracy, grammar and punctuation accuracy and clarity and organisation of written expression, and its counterpart in the UK is dysgraphia.
In DSM-5 attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is classified under neurodevelopmental disorders together with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). ADHD and ASD do not directly belong to the group of SpLDs as their effects impact wider areas of everyday life, not just learning in and outside school contexts.
Segue um glossário com uma lista de termos usados na confecção de um plano de aula eficaz, necessário para uma boa aula com a interação e motivação do aluno.
What the teacher wants to achieve in the lesson or in the course. The main aim is the most important aim.
The aim or purpose of a stage, step or short section of a lesson.
The secondary focus of the lesson, less important than the main aim. It could be the language or skills learners use in order to achieve the main aim of the lesson, or a skill or language area which is practised while the teacher is working on achieving the main lesson aim.
What the teacher would like to improve in his/her teaching.
Anticipated problems and solutions
When teachers are planning a lesson, they think about what their learners might find difficult about the lesson and about how they can help them learn more effectively at certain points in the lesson.
When teachers think about what they believe their learners will or will not know or how they will behave in a particular lesson.
A description of the learners and information about their learning, including their age, ability, strengths and weaknesses in language and skills.
The different ways learners and the teacher work together in class, e.g. learner to learner in pairs or groups, or teacher to learner in open class, in plenary. When teachers plan lessons, they think about interaction patterns and write them on their plan.
A breakdown of vocabulary and grammar covered in the lesson which provides information about the structure of the language, what it means and how it is used.
A set of actions that describes the way to do something. Teachers write lesson plans and provide details of exactly what is going to happen in each stage of a lesson. The details of the different actions are the procedures of the lesson.
The materials or tools which teachers use in class to help learners learn.
A section of a lesson. Lessons have different stages or steps such as lead-in, presentation, practice.
Teachers plan timetables which provide details of the lessons they will teach in the near future. Timetable fit is about how a lesson fits logically into the sequence of lessons in a timetable.
The likely time different activities or stages in a lesson plan should take. When teachers plan lessons, they think about how long each activity will take and they usually write this on their plan.
This is when teachers identify and address the different needs, interests or abilities of their learners by providing a range of activity types and using a range of approaches.
This is the commonly accepted abbreviation for teacher talk time and refers to the amount of time in a lesson that the teacher talks to the learners. It is important that TTT is helpful to the learners.
This is the commonly accepted abbreviation for student talk time and refers to the amount of time in a lesson that the students talk. There needs to be a balance of TTT and STT in a language lesson.
This is when teachers use language they know the students have already studied to ease the cognitive load. This can be done by avoiding informal, colloquial language or complex grammar structures.
When the teacher asks learners questions, or prompts them, to come up with ideas or language. It can be used to activate their existing knowledge of a language point in order to base new knowledge on what they already know.
When the teacher observes learners during an activity to check their understanding of the activity and assess their progress.
This happens at the end of the activity cycle when the teacher gives the learners feedback on their performance by going through the answers with the class and/or finding out what they have talked about. This stage can be used for further clarification if the learners still need help with the language point.
Source: British Council
© UCLES 2018
Algumas dessas tradições, nós tbm fazemos no Brasil, outras já estudamos durante as aulas. Vale conferir e praticar sua leitura.
Many New Year traditions that we take for granted actually date back to ancient times. This year, ring out the old and ring in the new with a new New Year tradition—or two!
MAKE SOME NOISE
Making a lot of noise—from fireworks to gun shots to church bells—seems to be a favorite pastime around the world.
• In ancient Thailand, guns were fired to frighten off demons.
• In China, firecrackers routed the forces of darkness.
• In the early American colonies, the sound of pistol shots rang through the air.
• Today, Italians let their church bells peal, the Swiss beat drums, and the North Americans sound sirens and party horns to bid the old year farewell.
EAT LUCKY FOOD
Many New Year traditions surround food. Here are a few:
• The tradition of eating 12 grapes at midnight comes from Spain. Revelers stuff their mouths with 12 grapes in the final moments of the year—one grape for every chime of the clock!
• In the southern US, black-eyed peas and pork foretell good fortune. See our recipe for Good Luck Hoppin’ John!
• In Scotland—where Hogmanay is celebrated—people parade down the streets swinging balls of fire.
• Eating any ring-shaped treat (such as a doughnut) symbolizes “coming full circle” and leads to good fortune. In Dutch homes, fritters called olie bollen are served.
• The Irish enjoy pastries called bannocks.
• In India and Pakistan, rice promises prosperity.
• Apples dipped in honey are a Rosh Hashanah (Jewish New Year) tradition.
• In Swiss homes, dollops of whipped cream, symbolizing the richness of the year to come, are dropped on the floors—and allowed to remain there!
HAVE A DRINK
Although the pop of a champagne cork signals the arrival of the New Year around the world, some countries have their own beverage-based traditions.
• Wassail, a punch-like drink named after the Gaelic term for “good health,” is served in some parts of England.
• Spiced “hot pint” is the Scottish version of Wassail. Traditionally, the Scots drank to each others’ prosperity and also offered this warm drink to neighbors along with a small gift.
• In Holland, toasts are made with hot, spiced wine.
GIVE A GIFT
New Year’s Day was once the time to swap presents.
• Gifts of gilded nuts or coins marked the start of the new year in Rome.
• Eggs, the symbol of fertility, were exchanged by the Persians.
• Early Egyptians traded earthenware flasks.
• In Scotland, coal, shortbread and silverware were traditionally exchanged for good luck.
PUT YOUR BEST FOOT FORWARD
In Scotland, the custom of first-footing is an important part of the celebration of Hogmanay, or New Year’s Eve Day.
After midnight, family and friends visit each other’s home. The “first foot” to cross a threshold after midnight will predict the next year’s fortune. Although the tradition varies, those deemed especially fortunate as “first footers” are new brides, new mothers, those who are tall and dark (and
handsome?) or anyone born on January 1.
TURN OVER A NEW LEAF
The dawn of a new year is an opportune time to take stock of your life.
• Jews who observe Rosh Hashanah make time for personal introspection and prayer, as well as visiting graves.
• Christian churches hold “watch-night” services, a custom that began in 1770 at Old St. Georges Methodist Church in Philadelphia.
• The practice of making New Year’s resolutions, said to have begun with the Babylonians as early as 2600 B.C., is another way to reflect on the past and plan ahead.
NEW YEAR’S FOLKLORE
Some customs and beliefs are simply passed down through the ages. Here are some of our favorite age-old sayings and proverbs.
• On New Year’s Eve, kiss the person you hope to keep kissing.
• If New Year’s Eve night wind blow south, It betokeneth warmth and growth.
• For abundance in the new year, fill your pockets and cupboards today.
• If the old year goes out like a lion, the new year will come in like a lamb.
• Begin the new year square with every man. [i.e., pay your debts!] –Robert B. Thomas, founder of The Old Farmer’s Almanac
So, whether we resolve to return borrowed farm equipment (as did the Babylonians) or drop a few pounds, we’re tapping into an ancient and powerful longing for a fresh start!
HAPPY NEW YEAR!!!!
There are many benefits of studying for older learners, such as increased self-confidence, increased feelings of health and well-being, reduced feelings of isolation, and increased engagement in the community.
Many seniors wish to study a foreign language and there is now substantial evidence that they can learn a new language effectively. My experience is that senior learners are excellent language students for a number of reasons.
Senior students have a wealth of life experience and when they bring this to the classroom they enrich the learning experience of the whole class. Our teachers comment that older learners are excellent students to have in the classroom as they are always happy to talk about their experiences and give their opinions on a wide range of topics.
Senior learners do not normally need a certificate, diploma or university credit; their motivation is intrinsic. They may study for intellectual enjoyment, to socialise with their peers or because it is something they have always wanted to do. In fact, senior learners are very often more highly motivated than younger learners. Their high level of motivation is a great advantage as this has been identified as one of the most important factors in determining successful language learning. The motivation of senior learners is reflected by the fact that they rarely miss a class, participate very actively in the classroom and always do their homework.
We have discovered that there is a strong social component in seniors attending English classes. They often attend class to mix with their peers, forming very strong friendships and socialising together after the class and even in their free time.
Our experience is that senior learners have an extremely positive attitude toward language learning and life in general. They treat both their teachers and their classmates with the utmost respect and politeness. Our teachers often comment on how kind, considerate, and hardworking senior learners are, and what a pleasure they are to teach.
So our experience is that the life experience, motivation to learn, and positive attitude of senior learners provide them with many advantages as language learners. However, there are cognitive, affective and physiological factors which can affect senior language learning. We are going to identify these factors and then look at how you can adapt your courses and practices to meet the needs of older learners.
Helping students hear
Hearing loss may have a direct impact on learning and performance for senior learners. In order to decrease the negative effects of this auditory loss, teachers should try to accommodate the aging ear in a number of ways by:
• speaking clearly and ensuring that the students can see their face and lips.
• adjusting the volume for listenings and videos.
• repeating listening texts.
• using short films and videos which aid listening comprehension as students can see the face and lips of the speakers.
• ensuring that your classrooms have little background noise.
Helping students see
Defective vision increases dramatically as people age. Visual ability is particularly important in education as it is generally accepted that approximately 80% of all learning occurs through vision. To accommodate this loss in vision, here are some steps to follow:
• Use a larger print type for printed text.
• Make sure that senior students sit as close to the board as possible.
• Write very clearly on the board.
• Ensure that classrooms have a lot of natural light and that there is direct lighting for the whiteboard.
As people age the body tends to lose some strength, flexibility and mobility. They may also suffer from arthritis and rheumatism. These changes may make it difficult for older learners to move around the classroom. To compensate for these changes we recommend doing the following things:
• Ensure that older learners have comfortable chairs and tables.
• Allow more time for older students to do whole class communicative activities where students have to stand up and move around the classroom.
Research indicates that cognitive development, recall, and problem solving may show decline with aging. In order to overcome this cognitive decline which may make it more difficult to learn a new language, teachers can help seniors develop and maintain their cognitive ability in a number of ways:
• Integrate memory exercises into classes. Use visual and auditory mnemonic devices, examples and memory associations to help seniors rehearse and later retrieve vocabulary and expressions from long-term memory.
• Systematically repeat and recycle grammar, vocabulary and expressions.
• Encourage students to draw on their wealth of experiences and to use cognitive strategies they have used successfully in the past in their current language learning environment.
• Allow more time for students to produce language without being interrupted.
Building confidence / Reducing stress
Many older learners fear failure and are more anxious than younger learners, perhaps this is because they accept the stereotype of the older learner as a poor language learner or because of previous unsuccessful attempts to learn a foreign language. Older learners need to feel comfortable and trust the teacher and the other students before they participate fully in the language classroom. A key role of the teacher is to reduce anxiety and build trust and self-confidence in the senior learner.
Here are some of the things teachers can do to reduce stress and build self-confidence in older adult learners:
• Find out what our older learners’ motivations are for learning a language and adjust our methodology accordingly.
• Use humanistic techniques to build empathy between the teacher and students, and among the students.
• Reduce the focus on error correction to build learners’ self-confidence and to promote language production.
• Avoid timed tests which may make senior learners anxious.
• Give senior students more time to complete activities.
• Promote a friendly and relaxed atmosphere in the classroom.
My experience is that any difficulties which senior learners may experience in the language classroom can be overcome through adjustments to the learning environment and material, attention to physical, affective and cognitive factors, and the use of an effective teaching methodology which focuses on the learning process rather than academic achievement.
Kieran Donaghy is teacher at UAB Idiomes, Barcelona. He is also the creator of http://film-english.com/, an award-winning website providing free resources for teachers wishing to use video effectively in their classrooms.
Teachers Day Wishes 🍎
• The best teachers don’t give you the answer, they spark within you the desire to find the answer yourself. Happy Teachers Day!
• I am grateful to be your student. Thank you for challenging me to be my best and instilling in me a passion for learning. Happy Teachers Day!
• My child’s future is so much brighter because of you. Thank you for being an outstanding teacher. Best wishes for Teachers Day.
• Keep calm and study on. Happy Teachers’ Day!
• You deserve recognition for all the sacrifices that you make, you are more than a teacher to me and I THANK YOU!
• Today I celebrate you for being selfless, devoted, hardworking, and the wisest person in the classroom. I am grateful to be your student. Happy Teacher’s Day!
• Wishing you joy and happiness, you are an amazing teacher, and you only deserve the best.
• You are the spark, the inspiration, the guide, the candle to my life. I am deeply thankful that you are my teacher.
Mensagens do dia dos professores
• Os melhores professores não lhe dão a resposta, eles despertam em você o desejo de encontrar a resposta você mesmo. Feliz Dia dos professores!
• Sou grato por ser seu aluno. Obrigado por me desafiar a ser o meu melhor e instilar em mim uma paixão por aprender. Feliz Dia dos professores!
• O futuro do meu filho é muito mais brilhante por você. Obrigado por ser um excelente professor. Os melhores desejos para o Dia dos Professores.
• Mantenha a calma e estude. Feliz Dia dos professores!
• Você merece reconhecimento por todos os sacrifícios que você faz, você é mais do que um professor e EU TE OBRIGADO!
• Hoje eu o celebrei por ser abnegado, dedicado, trabalhador e a pessoa mais sábia na sala de aula. Sou grato por ser seu aluno. Feliz Dia dos professores!
• Desejando-lhe alegria e felicidade, você é um professor incrível, e você merece o melhor.
• Você é a faísca, a inspiração, o guia, a vela para minha vida. Estou profundamente grato por você ser minha professora.
1. Take a nature walk.
Studies have shown that getting outside in nature improves well-being, and you can also gain perspective from spring’s visual cues. For example, in fall, the changing leaves are a reminder of impermanence—just as they change colors and fall from the trees, so will whatever is stressing you out. Be the tree and let what is temporary fall away.
2. Focus on small tasks.
Practice mindfulness as you complete the smaller things on your list—housework, paperwork, yard work. Focus fully on what you are doing right here, right now, checking in with all your senses as you do your tasks. If your thoughts wander to something bigger looming in the future, gently guide your mind back to the task at hand. By staying in the present moment, you stop giving importance and attention to your past or future worries.
3. Watch or read something silly.
Entertainment is more than an escape. Studies have shown that laughter reduces the release of stress hormones in your body. Catch a silly movie, or read the latest book from your favorite funny guy or gal.
4. Sing (really).
Studies have found that singing has a positive impact on affect and anxiety, and may even reduce depression. So turn up the music and sing along or gather some friends for karaoke—if nothing else, it will make you laugh (see tip 3).
5. Try a basic breath practice meditation.
This session from Meditation Studio teacher Elisha Goldstein invites you to do nothing but watch your breath, which eventually makes it easier for you to focus on other tasks in your everyday life (without stressing). During this practice, it’s completely OK if you find yourself thinking about other things—just stay with your breath. “If all you did was notice your mind going off when it was wandering and gently brought it back over and over again,” Goldstein says, “your time would be well-spent
1. Faça uma caminhada pela natureza.
Estudos demonstraram que ficar afastado na natureza melhora o bem-estar, e você também pode obter uma perspectiva das sugestões visuais da primavera. Por exemplo, no outono, as folhas que mudam são uma lembrança da impermanência – assim como eles mudam de cores e caem das árvores, assim como tudo o que forçá-lo a sair. Seja a árvore e deixe o que é temporário cair.
2. Concentre-se em pequenas tarefas.
Pratique a atenção plena ao completar as coisas menores na sua lista de tarefas domésticas, papelada, trabalho de quintal. Concentre-se totalmente no que você está fazendo aqui mesmo, agora mesmo, checando com todos os seus sentidos enquanto faz suas tarefas. Se seus pensamentos vagarem para algo maior que se aproxima no futuro, leve sua mente de volta à tarefa em questão. Ao permanecer no momento presente, você deixa de dar importância e atenção às suas preocupações passadas ou futuras.
3. Assista ou leia algo bobo.
O entretenimento é mais do que uma fuga. Estudos demonstraram que o riso reduz a liberação de hormônios do estresse em seu corpo. Pegue um filme bobo, ou leia o último livro de seu cara engraçado ou galão favorito.
4. Cante (realmente).
Estudos descobriram que o canto tem um impacto positivo sobre o afeto e a ansiedade e pode até reduzir a depressão. Então, aumente a música e cante ou colecione alguns amigos para karaokê – se nada mais, isso fará você rir (veja a dica 3).
5. Experimente uma meditação básica de respiração.
Esta sessão da professora de Meditação Studio, Elisha Goldstein, convida você a fazer nada além de assistir sua respiração, o que eventualmente torna mais fácil para você se concentrar em outras tarefas em sua vida cotidiana (sem estressar). Durante esta prática, é completamente bom se você se achar pensando em outras coisas – fique com a respiração. “Se tudo o que você fez foi notar sua mente desaparecendo quando estava vagando e gentilmente trouxe de volta uma e outra vez”, diz Goldstein, “seu tempo seria bem gasto
Little Bit of Wisdom …
… from Diana, Princess of Wales
“Carry out a random act of kindness with no expectation of reward, safe in the knowledge that one day someone might do the same for you.”
“Family is the most important thing in the world.”
“I think the biggest disease the world suffers from in this day and age is the disease of people feeling unloved. I know that I can give love for a minute, for half an hour, for a day, for a month, but I can give.”
“Everyone of us needs to show how much we care for each other and, in the process, care for ourselves.”
“I want my boys to have an understanding of people’s emotions, their insecurities, people’s distress, and their hopes and dreams.”
“Hugs can do great amounts of good – especially for children.”
Um Pouco de sabedoria …
… de Diana, princesa de Gales
“Realize um ato aleatório de bondade sem expectativa de recompensa, sabendo que um dia alguém pode fazer o mesmo por você”.
“A família é a coisa mais importante do mundo”.
“Acho que a maior doença que o mundo sofre neste dia e idade é a doença das pessoas que se sentem amadas. Eu sei que posso dar amor por um minuto, por meia hora, por um dia, por um mês, mas posso dar.”
“Todos nós precisamos mostrar o quanto nos cuidamos e, no processo, nos cuidamos”.
“Eu quero que meus meninos tenham uma compreensão das emoções das pessoas, suas inseguranças, angústia das pessoas e suas esperanças e sonhos”.
“Os abraços podem fazer grandes quantidades de bem – especialmente para crianças”.
A revista Veja publicou um artigo interessante sobre este tema. Era a história de capa e muitos dos meus alunos compraram a revista influenciados pelo artigo. Como esta é a minha área de especialização, corri para ler a história, também.
Infelizmente, o que a maioria dos adultos acha que é que eles passaram da idade adequada e que não serão capazes de aprender a falar Inglês. Já ouvi frases como “papagaio velho não aprende a falar” ou “Eu tenho muito vocabulário, mas eu não sei formar frases” ou “Eu fico muito nervoso e me dá um branco.” Atualmente tenho alunos de 60, 70 anos que têm um excelente desempenho e muita satisfação com o aprendizado!
Qualquer aprendizagem é mais difícil ao longo dos anos, mas isso não pode ser motivo de desistência. É comum nos justificarmos com desculpas de falta de tempo, dinheiro, transporte, inibição e não ter a coragem de arregaçar as mangas para superar os obstáculos.
Em termos de educação, pesquisas colocam o Brasil no fim da linha entre países com conhecimentos de Inglês. Isso é deprimente, especialmente se pensarmos em todos os eventos mundiais que ocorrem no Brasil e que envolvem conhecimentos de Inglês.
Quando temos sucesso ao fazer alguma coisa, o sentimento de vitória por superarmos as dificuldades é imenso! Especialmente quando você cresce em sua profissão devido à aprendizagem de línguas.
Algumas pessoas já sofreram humilhação ao falar Inglês e usar uma palavra ou frase erroneamente e acabaram envolvidas em grande dificuldade ou constrangimento. Eu sei de alguns casos de pessoas no exterior que passaram por situações tão embaraçosas que se tornaram cômicas.
Todas essas experiências bizarras durante viagens internacionais, entrevistas de emprego, ou reuniões são válidas e fazem parte do processo de desenvolvimento da aprendizagem de uma nova língua. O aluno tem que seguir em frente, não se sentir desanimado, ele deve saber que tudo isso faz parte do processo de aquisição da linguagem e que essas situações estranhas são importantes para a fixação do conteúdo.
Então, meu amigo que está aprendendo Inglês depois de adulto, parabéns! Não tenha vergonha de cometer erros, falar sem a certeza das palavras, ficar tenso, ou errar na concordância. Vá em frente, porque é só assim para aprender uma nova língua. E para aqueles que, ainda têm medo de tentar, de dar o primeiro passo, é mais fácil do que você pensa!
Paula Lyra e Alves
It´s Never too late to learn to speak English
The Veja Magazine published an interesting article on this topic. It was the cover story and many of my students bought the magazine influenced by the article. Once this is my area of expertise, I rushed to read the story, too.
Unfortunatelly, what most adults think is that they have passed the appropriate age and that they will no longer be able to learn to speak English. I’ve heard phrases like “old parrot does not learn to talk” or “I have much vocabulary, but I don´t form sentences” or “I get too nervous and forget everything.” Currently I have some students with 60 and 70 years old who have excellent performance and are very happy with their outcome!
Any learning is more difficult over the years, but this may not be cause for discontinuance. It is very common to justify ourselves with excuses of lack of time, money, transport, inhibition and thereby avoid having the courage to roll up the sleeves and overcome barriers.
In terms of Education, researches put Brazil at the end of the line between countries with knowledge of English Language. This is depressing, especially if we think of all the world events that occur in Brazil involving the knowledge of English.
When succeding to do something, the feeling of victory for those who managed to overcome the difficulties is immense. Especially when you grow up in your profession due to language learning.
Some people have suffered humiliation when speaking English after using a word or phrase and mistakenly ended up involved in great difficulty or embarrassment. I know of some cases of people abroad who have been through such embarrassing situations that have become comical.
All these bizarre experiences during international travels, job interviews, or meetings are valid and are part of the development process of learning a new language. The learner has to move on, do not feel dejected, he should know that it’s all part of the process of language acquisition and that these strange situations are relevant to the fixing of the content.
So my friend who is learning English as an adult, congratulations! Do not be shy about making mistakes! Talk even without the certainty of words, tenses, or of concordance. Go ahead, because it’s just so that you learn a new language. And for those of you who are still afraid to try, take the first step. It’s easier than you think!
Paula Lyra e Alves
Segue um texto para treino de leitura e compreensão sobre um tema bastante atual.
Bullying can be found in every school. It is often part of how young people interact in our society. Each school must recognize the extent and impact and take steps to prevent that from happening. When bullying is ignored or underestimated, students will suffer permanent torment and harassment. It can cause lifelong damage to the victims. Both bullies and victims are more likely to become criminals. A failure of the school to deal with bullying endangers the safety of all its students, allowing a hostile environment that certainly interferes with learning. There is clear evidence that school can dramatically reduce the incidence of bullying. We need to make schools free of bullying, take immediate action; every student has the right to a safe environment free from bullying.
The size of the problem
Scientific studies show that bullying is an international problem that affects all schools. There is a remarkable similarity in the incidence of bullying from country to country and from school to school. Bullying knows no international boundaries, socio-economic status or ethnic boundaries. This usually has three common characteristics: it is a deliberate and hurtful behavior is repeated and it is difficult for those being bullied to defend themselves. There are three main types of bullying: physical type: hitting, kicking, taking belongings; verbal type: name calling, insults, racist comments and indirect type / emotional: spreading nasty stories, excluding groups.
How to deal with an incident of bullying
Students bullied are typically passive or become so because of intimidation. Avoid concentrating the focus on the shortcomings of the victim of bullying. Focus on the immediate problem is that the behavior of the aggressor. The objective of any intervention must stop the abuse immediately. Make sure that the abuser changes his behavior. Provide support for the victim, ensuring the same access to an environment free of bullying at all times.
Teacher and School Action
Not only the teacher, but all school staff must be committed to a common response to bullying when it happens, because immediate action is crucial. Clear procedures should take place when a case of bullying is discovered. The school needs to provide the necessary support for the individual teacher, so that he is able to maintain a classroom environment safe. There should be clear guidelines that stipulate that teachers have responsibilities when it comes to a case of bullying. A teacher who is conscious of their role should observe when a student is isolated, sad and should seek the reasons for this. Teachers must recognize that a safe classroom is the most effective way to develop a positive learning environment free from bullying.