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As primeiras origens e história
O termo “sexta-feira negra” foi realmente associado à crise financeira, não às compras de vendas.
Dois financistas de Wall Street, Jim Fisk e Jay Gould, compraram juntos uma quantidade significativa de ouro dos EUA na esperança de que o preço global subisse e, por sua vez, pudessem vendê-lo com lucros enormes.
Na sexta-feira, 24 de setembro de 1869, no que foi chamado de “Black Friday”, o mercado de ouro dos EUA entrou em colapso e as ações de Fisk e Gould deixaram os barões de Wall Street em falência.
Não foi até anos posteriores que o período pós-Ação de Graças se associou ao nome.
Nos últimos anos, circulou um boato impreciso, sugerindo que os proprietários de plantações do sul poderiam comprar escravos a um preço com desconto após o Dia de Ação de Graças, no século XIX.
Dialogue explaining which nations form the UK.
Man: So where are you from?
Woman: Scotland. Are you Scottish too?
Man: Well, no, I’m English actually, but, you know, it’s all, like, the same thing, isn’t it?
Woman: Not exactly.
Man: Go on! Isn’t Scotland just like, well, a bit of England?
Woman: No, it is not!
Man: Sorry, Britain I mean.
Woman: Britain is not England!
Man: Well, yeah, I know that. I’m not stupid or anything, but Britain’s, like, England, Scotland and Wales, isn’t it?
Woman: Not exactly.
Man: Yeah, it is – the UK, the United Kingdom.
Woman: The United Kingdom is Scotland, England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
Man: Oh, I see, but we’re all, like, the same nation, aren’t we?
Woman: Not really. Four nations, one state.
Man: Oh, I get it! So the UK (is), like, the same as Great Britain.
Woman: Great Britain is a geographical term – it’s a big island with Scotland, England and Wales on it.
Man: All right, but we all have the same prime minister, don’t we?
Woman: Yes, and the same head of state.
Man: The Queen!
Man: And the same government?
Woman: Well, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have their own local parliaments.
Man: Oh. I see.
Woman: It’s complicated.
Man: Yeah, I can see that.
Learning in a second language can be challenging, but you as a language-aware teacher can make a big difference. Here’s a summary of the main ideas:
- Language is more than vocabulary, grammar and spelling. It is shaped by discourses, genre conventions and context.
- Students need control of both the everyday interpersonal register and the more formal academic register to succeed in school.
- Language learners will come from a variety of circumstances with a variety of resources, so don’t make assumptions about their needs.
- Don’t leave it to osmosis – plan for language learning as well as curriculum learning.
- Keep the focus on making meaning, not on correctness.
- Encourage repetition, recycling and redundancy.
- Use visuals and gestures to support language learners.
- In your talk and classroom resources, aim for ‘comprehensibility plus’.
- Welcome your students’ first languages into the classroom.
- Plan different spaces and activities for different types of talk.
- Give language learners a bit more wait time.
- Understand the particular language demands of your curriculum area.
- Build the genre cycle into your lesson planning.
- Let students into the secrets of genre conventions.
- Use feedback on students’ work as an opportunity for language learning.
- Observe how your language learners are progressing, and plan for the next stage.
© University of Glasgow
Estudos comprovam que o uso na 1ª língua ajuda aos alunos a compreender melhor o significado das palavras na 2ª língua. Esse processo chama-se Translinguagem!
Recently, there has been a growing recognition that our language learners’ educational outcome may in fact be improved if they are given support in their own first language alongside their English language development. Despite this, some teachers and parents still fear that by supporting bilingual pupils’ first language their development of English will suffer. Evidence suggests that this is not the case. Rather, acknowledging and incorporating the use of our language learners’ first language in the classroom as a learning resource offers a positive move towards building a more supportive learning environment. This is called translanguaging.
Excelente vídeo com uma mensagem maravilhosa sobre a palestra da menina Greta
Little e seus significados.
Four primary ways to nurture this kind of intrinsic motivation:
- Supporting students to feel a greater sense of autonomy. In other words, where they have a degree of control over what needs to happen and how it can be done.
- Competence – students are more likely to do something if they feel like they have the ability to be successful doing it!
- Relevance, which is when students feel that what they are learning relates to their present lives or future hopes.
- Relatedness – doing an activity that helps students feel more connected to others, and helps them feel cared about by people whom they respect
So, what can these elements look like in literacy instruction?
Autonomy can be promoted by:
- Providing students choice in independent reading. In the past, it was not unusual for even older English Language Learners (ELLs) to only be able to read English books written for toddlers. However, now, a variety of books are available that are designed for – and accessible to – teenagers, especially graphic novels and nonfiction. In addition, there is no shortage of online reading sites that including audio support, animations and videos that make more complex text accessible.
- Choice does not have to be limited to reading! It’s not difficult to provide students with two different writing prompts that teach the same desired learning outcome. For example, one day students were learning how to write an “argument” (also known as a persuasive essay). After having learned about different natural disasters, they were supposed to write about which one they felt was the worst to experience. One student had his head on the desk and didn’t want to do it. I knew he was a football fan, and asked him if he could use the same structure to write about why his favorite football team was the best one. He leaped at the chance, got right to work, and delivered an essay that demonstrated he understood the key components of writing an argument. That was the learning goal, not writing about disasters.
Some ways to help students feel like they developing more skills include:
- Regularly giving “Low-stakes” formative fluency assessments (where students read a short passage to a teacher for a minute, who then tracks the number of words read and their level of “prosody”) can be done regularly and then students can see their own progress. Even better, students can record these assessments and hear their progress for themselves!
- Providing students with graphic organizers called “writing frames” and more advanced “writing structures” can assist them be more successful in their writing. This kind of scaffolding can provide the support students need until they become more proficient.
Students can see that reading and writing can be connected to their lives in many ways, including:
- When it comes to helping students feel like reading and writing (and speaking and listening!) in English is relevant to their lives, I find that regularly highlighting the social and economic advances of being able to read and write (as well as speak and understand spoken) English, in addition to their home languages, is a winning strategy. I often pair a related funny video with research and articles in a mini-lesson to remind students of its value, in addition to inviting students to share how they think learning English can benefit them.
- Nothing beats enhancing student motivation for writing than having them do it for an authentic audience (someone other than their teacher). Whether it’s writing a recipe to be posted on a cooking site, a political opinion for a newspaper “letter to the editor,” an Amazon book review, or for countless other outlets, we all tend to feel more focused when others are going to read our work. Many students are very focused on their online lives, and showing that what they write will be available for all the world to see can not only generate motivation, but perhaps more recognition that they want to carefully review everything they put on the Internet.
There are several ways to help students connect to each other while reading and writing. A few are:
- An easy way to help students feel more motivated to read is to have them read a text in pairs – taking turns orally reading paragraphs to each other. Jigsaws take this step even further by having small groups read sections of a text together and then challenging them to teach what they read to others.
- Having students write together – either in class or online – can be an effective to help develop writing skills, and to solidify relationships. You can find a list of related sites and lesson ideas here.
None of these strategies are guaranteed ways to help every student in your class feel motivated to read and write in English, but they are certainly unlikely to make them feel less energized to do so!