Learning tip: Read and relax!

If you have some free time over the holidays, reading stories is an excellent way to practice and improve your English. Stories aren’t just fun to read. They also contain a wide range of language, including words, structures, styles and meanings that you may not find in other reading texts.

Bellow you can find links with some stories that were written especially for learners at different levels. Here’s some advice:

  • Don’t choose a story that is too difficult. If it’s difficult, you’ll feel confused.
  • Don’t check the dictionary a lot. It slows down your reading and makes it hard to enjoy.
  • Choose a story with some words that are new for you but whose words you mostly understand. That will allow you to enjoy the story more and also improve your reading speed.

Enjoy your reading time!

https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/general-english/story-zone/a2-b1-

https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/general-english/story-zone/b2-c1-stories

Source: https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/general-english/story-zone?utm_campaign=english-all-learnenglish-global-newsletters&utm_medium=email&_hsmi=66874876&_hsenc=p2ANqtz-8ej0mVCw1DFzWnvq2a0ANLaTk6fQ8kjssH8b1ykyQyCn_WtiB5ReX5kAZD0HqvK5cnesSaXjKkckCtwKEpikT7nno5hQ&utm_content=66874876&utm_source=hs_email

The origins of English

The story of the English language began in the fifth century when Germanic tribes invaded Celtic-speaking Britain and brought their languages with them. Later, Scandinavian Vikings invaded and settled with their languages too. In 1066 William I, from modern-day France, became king, and Norman-French became the language of the courts and official activity. People couldn’t understand each other at first, because the lower classes continued to use English while the upper classes spoke French, but gradually French began to influence English. An estimated 45 per cent of all English words have a French origin. By Shakespeare’s time, Modern English had developed, printing had been invented and people had to start to agree on ‘correct’ spelling and vocabulary.

Source: http://www.un.org/en/events/englishlanguageday/

Task 1: https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/general-english/magazine-zone/english-language-day?utm_source=newsletter&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=english-adults-leweb-global-global-2022-04-le-newsletter#

Task 2 : https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/general-english/magazine-zone/english-language-day?utm_source=newsletter&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=english-adults-leweb-global-global-2022-04-le-newsletter#

Remote teaching tips

This publication offers a range of practical tips and advice for remote teaching in all contexts.

Technology has already transformed our century. Smartphones, cloud computing, social media and videoconferencing are only a few of the major innovations that have exploded onto the scene. They have changed our lives and completely changed the ways in which we communicate and access information and learning. 

Yet in 2020 teachers have also had to face another unexpected challenge – the Covid-19 pandemic. We know many children have missed learning during school closures and too many lack the conditions for remote learning. But the more that teachers can provide remote teaching the better.

These tips provide new ideas for teachers less familiar with remote teaching and provide fresh insights for teachers who already teach remotely. See the list of tips and guidance below:

  • Getting started with online teaching
  • Keeping your learners safe online
  • Lesson planning for teaching live online
  • A menu of ideas for online lessons
  • Supporting neurodiversity in online teaching
  • Inclusion in remote teaching contexts
  • Helping parents and caregivers to support remote learning
  • Supporting your child to learn remotely at home
  • Maximising speaking opportunities in online lessons
  • Maintaining student motivation while teaching remotely
  • Using Facebook to teach English remotely
  • Using mobile messenger apps to teach English remotely
  • Teaching English via television or YouTube
  • Teaching English using SMS
  • Teaching English via telephone calls
  • Teaching English via radio
  • Teaching English remotely with limited technology
  • Zoom: top tips for online English teaching

Source: https://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/remote-teaching-tips

Comparative / Superlative Adjective and Adverb

Learn how to use them

Language of comparison and contrast

In Describe Image items, you are likely to be presented with a graph. In these cases, it is important that you show appropriate relationships by comparing and contrasting the information contained in the graphs. Let’s see how you can use language of comparison and contrast.

Comparative adjectives: Use these when comparing two nouns and can be formed as follows:

  • Adjectives with one syllable: add ‘-r/-er’ (e.g. higher, larger, bigger).
  • Adjectives with two syllables ending in ‘-y’: change the ‘y’ and add ‘-ier’ (e.g. happier, prettier).
  • Adjectives ending in ‘-ed’ or ‘-ing’ and most adjectives with two syllables: add ‘more’ before the adjective (e.g. more boring, more crowded, more common, more peaceful).
  • Adjectives with three or more syllables: use ‘more’ before the adjective (e.g. more attractive, more successful).
  • Include ‘than’ as part of your sentence (e.g. It is more expensive to live in a city than in a small town).

Superlative adjectives: Use these when describing a noun that is at the highest or lowest limit of a group. They can be formed as follows:

  • Adjectives with one syllable: add ‘-st/-est’ (e.g. highest, largest, biggest).
  • Adjectives with two syllables ending in ‘-y’: change the ‘y’ and add ‘-iest’ (e.g. happiest, prettiest).
  • Adjectives ending in ‘-ed’ or ‘-ing’ and most adjectives with two syllables: add ‘the most’ before the adjective (e.g. the most boring, the most crowded, the most common, the most peaceful).
  • Adjectives with three or more syllables: use ‘the most’ before the adjective (e.g. the most attractive, the most successful).
  • Remember to include ‘the’ before the adjective or most (e.g. This was the cheapest car I could find.).

Comparative/superlative adverbs: The rules above apply when the comparison requires the use of an adverb. Examples:

  • I usually speak more quickly than my friends.
  • The students often work harder towards the end of the semester.
  • You can contact me the easiest by text.
  • The team played the best they could, but they didn’t win the match.

as … as: Use this structure when the two nouns being compared are equal in some form. The adjective does not change. Examples:

  • Divorce rates are twice as high as they were last year.
  • This room is as big as the one next door.

This structure can also be used with adverbs to compare two actions:

  • We didn’t finish as quickly as we’d hoped.
  • The presenter spoke as enthusiastically as he possibly could.

Comparison and contrast language is especially useful for Describe Image tasks. Look at some example sentences from student responses to this item type:

  • The land allocated for the public park is significantly smaller than the land allocated for the school.
  • The roads are much busier during June than they are in December.
  • The most important export for this country is oil.

© Macquarie University

A, An, it The

Learn the rules and study the e examples.

Articles

Articles are words which go before nouns and their function is to show if a noun is either specific or general. Let’s study the different types of articles:

The Definite Article: ‘The’

‘The’ is the definite article and it is used to refer to a specific noun. It can be used with singular, plural, and uncountable nouns. Examples:

  • Please use the correct form to submit theapplication. (singular)
  • The final results will be released in November. (plural)
  • Fish breathe the oxygen in the water. (uncountable)

‘The’ can also be used in these cases:

  • When there is only one thing of something: e.g. The sun is very bright
  • When something has been mentioned before: e.g. I saw a mouse. The mouse was huge.
  • With the names of seas, oceans, rivers and countries with a plural noun: e.g. TheMississippi River is in the United States.
  • In noun + of + noun phrases: e.g. The south of France is beautiful.
  • In superlatives: e.g. The tallest building in the world is over 800 metres tall.

Do not use ‘the’ with the following:

  • Names of most cities, countries or continents: Sydney, India (not the Sydney, or the India)
  • Days of the weeks and months: On Monday, In March (not on the Monday, in the March)
  • Sports: I play soccer, (not I play the soccer)

Indefinite Articles: ‘A/An’

This type of article uses the forms ‘a’ or ‘an’ and it is used with singular countable nouns denoting a general idea. ‘A/an’ can be used:

  • The first time the noun is mentioned: e.g. I saw a mouse. The mouse was huge.
  • With jobs: e.g. He is an architect, She works as a teacher.

Consider the following when using indefinite articles:

  • Use ‘a’ if the word begins with a consonant (e.g. a house, a long movie). Exception: if the consonant is unpronounced, use ‘an’ instead (e.g. an honest person).
  • Use ‘an’ if the word starts with a vowel (e.g. an umbrella, an expensive car). Exception: if the vowel is pronounced with a consonant sound, use ‘a’ (e.g. a university, a useful tip).
  • Do not use ‘a’ or ‘an’ with uncountable nouns: e.g. I want a water. In these cases, use ‘some’ or include a countable noun: I want somewater. / I want a glass of water.

The Zero Article

As its name suggests, this is when an article is not used before a noun. This occurs when referring to nouns with a general or abstract meaning, and can be used with plural and uncountable nouns.

  • Elephants in Africa are under threat. (general: all elephants in Africa)
  • Oil and water don’t mix.

The zero article can be used when referring to:

  • Languages: I speak French (not the French)
  • Places, such as Wall Street, Macquarie University, JFK Airport, Bangkok, England.
  • Academic subjects: My favourite subject is biology (not the biology)
  • Meals: We need to have breakfast (not the breakfast