Aprender em um segundo idioma pode ser desafiador, mas como o professor pode fazer uma grande diferença. Veja um resumo das principais ideias.
1- A linguagem é mais do que vocabulário, gramática e ortografia. É moldado por discursos, convenções de gênero e contexto.
2- Os estudantes precisam controlar tanto o registro interpessoal cotidiano quanto o registro acadêmico mais formal para obter sucesso na escola.
3- Os alunos de idiomas virão de várias circunstâncias com uma variedade de recursos, por isso, não faça suposições sobre suas necessidades.
4- Não o deixe em osmose – planeje o aprendizado de idiomas, bem como o aprendizado do currículo.
5- Mantenha o foco em fazer sentido, não em correção.
Incentivar a repetição, reciclagem e redundância.
Use recursos visuais e gestos para apoiar os alunos de idiomas.
6- Em seus recursos de conversação e sala de aula, busque “mais compreensibilidatde”.
7- Receba as primeiras línguas dos seus alunos na sala de aula.
8- Planeje diferentes espaços e atividades para diferentes tipos de conversa.
9- Dê aos alunos de idiomas um pouco mais de tempo de espera.
10- Entenda as demandas específicas de idioma da sua área de currículo.
11- Construa o ciclo de gênero em seu planejamento de aula.
12- Deixe os alunos entrarem no mundo das convenções de gênero.
13- Use o feedback sobre o trabalho dos alunos como uma oportunidade para o aprendizado de idiomas.
15- Observe como os alunos de sua língua estão progredindo e planeje o próximo estágio.
© Universidade de Glasgow
Learning in a second language can be challenging, but a language-aware teacher can make a big difference. Here’s a summary of the main ideas.
- Language is more than vocabulary, grammar and spelling. It is shaped by discourses, genre conventions and context.
- Students need control of both the everyday interpersonal register and the more formal academic register to succeed in school.
- Language learners will come from a variety of circumstances with a variety of resources, so don’t make assumptions about their needs.
- Don’t leave it to osmosis – plan for language learning as well as curriculum learning.
- Keep the focus on making meaning, not on correctness.
- Encourage repetition, recycling and redundancy.
- Use visuals and gestures to support language learners.
- In your talk and classroom resources, aim for ‘comprehensibility plus’.
- Welcome your students’ first languages into the classroom.
- Plan different spaces and activities for different types of talk.
- Give language learners a bit more wait time.
- Understand the particular language demands of your curriculum area.
- Build the genre cycle into your lesson planning.
- Let students into the secrets of genre conventions.
- Use feedback on students’ work as an opportunity for language learning.
- Observe how your language learners are progressing, and plan for the next stage.
© University of Glasgow
Frases ou dizeres para nos levar a pensar.
“A ship is safe in harbor, but that’s not what ships are for.”
John A. Shedd
“Courage is found in unlikely places.”
“You may not always have a comfortable life and you will not always be able to solve all of the world’s problems at once but don’t ever underestimate the importance you can have because history has shown us that courage can be contagious and hope can take on a life of its own.”
“Courage is what it takes to stand up and speak; courage is also what it takes to sit down and listen.”
“Since it is so likely that children will meet cruel enemies let them at least have heard of brave knights and heroic courage.”
“Never bend your head. Always hold it high. Look the world straight in the eye.”
“Courage does not always roar. Sometimes courage is the quiet voice at the end of the day saying, ‘I will try again tomorrow.”
Mary Anne Radmacher
Existem várias formas de ajudar a uma criança no seu desenvolvimento de vocabulário em inglês. Abaixo seguem algumas dessas ideias
You will notice quite a rich and varied vocabulary. We wouldn’t be expecting a child to produce this kind of language, especially if English is an additional language, but the adult can expose the child to this language, inputting key words and expressions associated with different activities in a fun and natural way. Remember that children like playing with words, even if they don’t know what the word means, and this is a valuable opportunity to work on pronunciation.
Children will reap the future benefits of this language rich environment, so closely connected to the activities that they love doing.
Playing with blocks
- use language for counting and sorting: How many are there? Shall we put the blue ones here?
- use positional language: in, on, under, below, behind, next to
- explore language related to size: big, small, long, short
- describe what a child is doing while playing: finding, stacking, pulling, pushing, building, pressing, dragging
- describe shapes and objects the children are making: square, rectangle, tower, house, castle, garden
Dress-ups (and drama)
- describe the costumes (fairy, princess, pirate, king, clown) and actions for getting dressed: put on, pull up/down, zip up, do the buttons up, unbutton, unzip
- highlight the relevant parts of the body: put your arms through here, tie this around your waist/wrist, put these on your feet – first your left foot, then your right foot, put this over your head
- use nursery rhymes and stories to model language for imaginary play
- develop listening comprehension by encouraging the children act out the rhyme or story in their costumes
- extend vocabulary associated with role-play: hospital, airport, artist’s studio, garden centre, vet, doctor, routines (breakfast/lunch/dinner/bed time)
Making and decorating (art and craft)
- name the materials: paint, paintbrush, crayon, felt-tip, marker, card, paper, crepe paper, shiny paper, tissue paper, newspaper, glue, scissors, cotton wool, fabric, sequins, feathers
- describe properties and textures of materials: runny, thick, smooth, hard, long, short, spiky, rough, shiny
- experiment with and describe colour
- use instructions: paint, draw, colour, smudge, blur, blow, copy, pour, make, cut, stick, decorate, hang (it) up
- art appreciation and describing what the children have made, painted or drawn.
Malleable materials (dough, plasticine, clay)
- use language of manipulation: push, pull, drop, squeeze, press, bend, twist, roll, stretch, squash, squish, pinch, flatten, poke, scrape, break apart
- describe length/thickness: longer than, shorter than, the same length as
- use language related to colour and smells
- describe texture: soft, hard, squishy, lumpy, grainy, shiny
- talk about materials that can be added to dough: feathers, sticks, twigs, shells
- explore language related to shapes
Music and movement activities
- use language related to actions, position and parts of the body: put your hands up in the air, draw circles in the air, touch your nose, wriggle your fingers, jump, hop, lie face down on the floor, lie on your back, move over there, come closer, curl up into a ball, stretch your arms out as wide as you can, take a nap
- name musical instruments: shaker, drum, recorder, xylophone, block, triangle, bell, tambourine
- use language to describe sounds: loud, quiet, soft, high, low, long, short, fast, slow, tap, shake, scrape, knock, tick, hum, howl
- familiarise children with a range of sounds through onomatopoeia
- use songs and rhymes to work on pronunciation, rhythm, stress and intonation
Toys and small world play
- extend vocabulary related to a particular topic: park, zoo, farm, hospital, transport
- comment on the objects, toys or figurines the children are playing with
- comment on the settings, scenes, themes or storylines children are developing as they play
- describe the position of the things the children are playing with: behind, next to, in, on, under
- describe the pictures and colours on the puzzles
- comment on the shape of the puzzle pieces: rectangle, square, triangle, circle
- comment on the position of the puzzle pieces: up/down, here/there
- encourage the social aspects of using puzzles: take turns, it’s your turn next, share
Sand play and water play
- use language related to equipment and resources: brush, spade, scoop, spoon, cup, jug, bucket, sieve, cutters, rake, comb, funnel, sponge, soap, bubbles, straw, ladle, tea pot, watering can
- extend vocabulary related to imaginary play: boats, diggers, bulldozers, tractors, treasure, dinosaurs, pirates, gardens, tea party, firefighter, plumber, dolls
- use descriptive language: wet, dry, damp, gritty, hard, lumpy, flat, smooth, wavy, sticky, cold, frozen, clean, dirty
- use language related to size, shape and position
- describe capacity and quantity: enough, more, less, too much/little, overflowing, how much/many? a pile/cup of…
- describe actions or what is happening: it’s fallen down, it’s gone, flatten, pour, tip, fill, scoop, cover, stir, splash, leak, drip, float, sink, trickle, spray, wash, dry.
© British Council
Through interactions we can support and extend a child’s learning and development, particularly in the area of communication and language.
Apart from building an emotional connection with the child through interactions, children benefit from hearing lots of talk, conversations and words. In 2012, Associate Professor at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, Meredith Rowe, carried out a study which looked at what contributes most to a child’s later vocabulary development. She found that:
- children’s vocabulary at 30 months was influenced by the quantity of words parents used one year earlier,
- their vocabulary at 42 months was influenced by parents’ use of a variety of sophisticated words one year earlier,
- their vocabulary at 54 months was influenced by parents’ use of narratives and explanations one year earlier.
Adults can interact by talking, listening and responding to the child.
Even if a child is not yet able to communicate verbally, the adult can contribute to the exchange using language. For example:
The child grizzles because he is feeling hungry.
Adult: I can see you’re upset. Would you like some milk?
The child rubs her eyes.
Adult: You look sleepy. I think it’s time for a nap.
The child flaps her arms excitedly.
Adult: I know you like that song! It goes la, la, la, la!
Child squeals in delight.
By showing genuine interest in the child and adding interest to what the child has offered, we are building trust, communication, and developing the child’s language skills all at the same time.
We can support and extend a child’s language development, just by being with them and interacting in a natural way.
© British Council
How can we provide a proper environment for children to develop?
Here are a few examples:
- Provide optimal conditions for rich play: space, time, flexible resources, choice, control, warm and supportive relationships.
- Make materials easily accessible at child height, to ensure everybody can make choices.
- Provide experiences and activities that are challenging but achievable.
- Provide activities that require give and take or sharing for things to be fair.
- Plan first-hand experiences and challenges appropriate to the development of the children.
- Convey to each child that you appreciate them and their efforts.
- Ensure children have uninterrupted time to play and explore.
- Incorporate recognisable and predictable routines to help children to predict and make connections in their experiences.
- Use puppets and other props to encourage listening and responding when singing a familiar song or reading from a story book.
- When you use songs and nursery rhymes, help children understand the words by using actions as well.
- Help children to predict and order events coherently, by providing props and materials that encourage children to re-enact, using talk and action.
- Set up displays that remind children of what they have experienced, using objects, artefacts, photographs and books.
- Display pictures and photographs showing familiar events, objects and activities and talk about them with the children.
- Provide activities which help children to learn to distinguish differences in sounds, word patterns and rhythms.
- Encourage correct use of language by telling repetitive stories, and playing games which involve repetition of words or phrases.
- Follow young children’s lead and have fun together while developing vocabulary, e.g. saying ‘We’re jumping up’, ‘crouching down low’.
- Talk through and comment on some activities to highlight specific vocabulary or language structures, e.g. “You’ve got a blue ball. I’ve got a green ball. Hannah’s got a red ball”.
- Provide collections of interesting things for children to sort, order, count and label in their play.
- Provide different sizes and shapes of containers in water play, so that children can experiment with quantities and measures.
- Offer a range of puzzles with large pieces and knobs or handles to support success in fitting shapes into spaces.
- Provide a wide range of materials, resources and sensory experiences to enable children to explore colour, texture and space.
- Provide space and time for movement and dance both indoors and outdoors.
- Lead imaginative movement sessions based on children’s current interests such as space travel, zoo animals or shadows.
- Provide a place where work in progress can be kept safely.
© Adapted from: Development Matters in the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS). London: Early Education, 2012.
Every child is unique. Children develop different skills and knowledge at their own pace and in different ways. As adults, it is important that we respect and value these different ways and rates of developing and learning.
A child who is not speaking may be actively listening and may need time to process what they are hearing before saying anything. It is important to value listening as well as speaking – non verbal responses from young children are perfectly acceptable. They show that the child has understood the message.
Having fun with the sounds of a language, experimenting with words in rhymes and songs, and saying things over and over again, are all things young children enjoy. When children do these things, they are learning new words, language structures and pronunciation, without even realizing it!
While in some cases translating may be necessary in order to put a child at ease, very young children may not understand even if you say it to them in their home language. Young children acquire language naturally, and this is also true for an additional language. Using mime and gesture, showing the children what you want them to do, and encouraging them to join in, are generally more effective ways of communicating meaning. The more English children hear, the more they will be able to produce in the future.
According to the Early Years Foundation Stage framework (England), and bearing in mind that children develop at their own rates and in their own ways, children typically develop the following things within these age ranges:
- Copies familiar expressions, e.g. Oh dear! All gone!
- Explores and experiments using senses and whole body.
- Listens with interest to the noises adults make when they read stories.
- Is interested in others’ play and is starting to join in.
- Runs safely on whole foot.
- Is aware that some actions can hurt or harm others.
- Repeats words or phrases from familiar stories.
- Recites some number names in sequence.
- Experiments with blocks, colors and marks.
- Responds to simple instructions, e.g. Put your toys away.
- Can catch a large ball.
- Notices what adults do, imitating what is observed and then doing it spontaneously when the adult is not there.
- Can play in a group.
- Holds books the correct way up and turns pages.
- Uses a pencil and holds it effectively.
- Extends vocabulary by grouping, naming, and exploring the sounds of new words.
- Writes own name and other things such as labels or captions.
- Constructs with a purpose in mind, using a variety of resources.
Some advice for parents and educators.
- A child who is not speaking may be actively listening and may need time to process what they are hearing before saying anything. It is important to value listening as well as speaking by giving the child lots of exposure to the language.
- Non verbal responses from young children are perfectly acceptable. They show that the child has understood the message.
- Don’t force a child to speak, they will when they are ready. Forcing a child to speak before they are ready could actually delay language development.
- Be genuine in your interactions with young children.
- Use mime and gesture as you would if you were talking to the child in their home language.
- Value the home language. The skills that children develop while learning their home language are transferable to an additional language.
Want to know more?
If you want to know more about how children learn and how they acquire language, or you have completed the activities with time to spare, have a look at the links and videos below.
- Read this article on how to help young children learn English as another language.
- Watch What do babies think? by psychologist Alison Gopnik.
- Watch The linguistic genius of babies by professor of speech and hearing sciences Dr Patricia Kuhl.
- Read this article about how talking to babies and young children builds their brains.
© British Council
Cat café’ and other words added to OxfordDictionaries.com
Mic drops, awesomesauce, manspreading, and more
Mx, Grexit, and other words in the news
Gaming and the Internet
The future of English
All languages change and evolve over time – some have periods of expansion and decline and some eventually die, while new languages emerge. English has a particularly long and interesting history of development and change.
The English we use today bears little resemblance to the English of Shakespeare and even less to that of Chaucer in the 14th century. Similarly, there are significant differences between the varieties of English used in different parts of the world and by different groups of users within and between societies. Arguably, the pace of change has sped up in the last fifty or so years, partly because of technological innovations and partly because of increased mobility and migration between social and cultural groups.
It is difficult to predict the future of English, as Professor David Crystal said, we could all be speaking Martian in the future. In his talk on the future of English, as a global language, Crystal explains that language becomes global for one reason only – the power of the people who speak it. As Crystal says, “Power always drives language. English will remain a global power if certain things happen to maintain the power of the nations who speak it.”
Both Crystal and other linguists envisage scenarios where languages other than English will become the future dominant global language such as Arabic, Spanish, Chinese. It is already the case that while English remains the most used language of the internet, the proportion of English used has significantly been replaced by a wide range of other languages as can be seen in these figures:
Languages used on the internet from Graddol 2006:4 – 2000 data from Global Reach, 2005 from Miniwatts International Ltd) (Cl