Excelente vídeo com uma mensagem maravilhosa sobre a palestra da menina Greta
Four primary ways to nurture this kind of intrinsic motivation:
- Supporting students to feel a greater sense of autonomy. In other words, where they have a degree of control over what needs to happen and how it can be done.
- Competence – students are more likely to do something if they feel like they have the ability to be successful doing it!
- Relevance, which is when students feel that what they are learning relates to their present lives or future hopes.
- Relatedness – doing an activity that helps students feel more connected to others, and helps them feel cared about by people whom they respect
So, what can these elements look like in literacy instruction?
Autonomy can be promoted by:
- Providing students choice in independent reading. In the past, it was not unusual for even older English Language Learners (ELLs) to only be able to read English books written for toddlers. However, now, a variety of books are available that are designed for – and accessible to – teenagers, especially graphic novels and nonfiction. In addition, there is no shortage of online reading sites that including audio support, animations and videos that make more complex text accessible.
- Choice does not have to be limited to reading! It’s not difficult to provide students with two different writing prompts that teach the same desired learning outcome. For example, one day students were learning how to write an “argument” (also known as a persuasive essay). After having learned about different natural disasters, they were supposed to write about which one they felt was the worst to experience. One student had his head on the desk and didn’t want to do it. I knew he was a football fan, and asked him if he could use the same structure to write about why his favorite football team was the best one. He leaped at the chance, got right to work, and delivered an essay that demonstrated he understood the key components of writing an argument. That was the learning goal, not writing about disasters.
Some ways to help students feel like they developing more skills include:
- Regularly giving “Low-stakes” formative fluency assessments (where students read a short passage to a teacher for a minute, who then tracks the number of words read and their level of “prosody”) can be done regularly and then students can see their own progress. Even better, students can record these assessments and hear their progress for themselves!
- Providing students with graphic organizers called “writing frames” and more advanced “writing structures” can assist them be more successful in their writing. This kind of scaffolding can provide the support students need until they become more proficient.
Students can see that reading and writing can be connected to their lives in many ways, including:
- When it comes to helping students feel like reading and writing (and speaking and listening!) in English is relevant to their lives, I find that regularly highlighting the social and economic advances of being able to read and write (as well as speak and understand spoken) English, in addition to their home languages, is a winning strategy. I often pair a related funny video with research and articles in a mini-lesson to remind students of its value, in addition to inviting students to share how they think learning English can benefit them.
- Nothing beats enhancing student motivation for writing than having them do it for an authentic audience (someone other than their teacher). Whether it’s writing a recipe to be posted on a cooking site, a political opinion for a newspaper “letter to the editor,” an Amazon book review, or for countless other outlets, we all tend to feel more focused when others are going to read our work. Many students are very focused on their online lives, and showing that what they write will be available for all the world to see can not only generate motivation, but perhaps more recognition that they want to carefully review everything they put on the Internet.
There are several ways to help students connect to each other while reading and writing. A few are:
- An easy way to help students feel more motivated to read is to have them read a text in pairs – taking turns orally reading paragraphs to each other. Jigsaws take this step even further by having small groups read sections of a text together and then challenging them to teach what they read to others.
- Having students write together – either in class or online – can be an effective to help develop writing skills, and to solidify relationships. You can find a list of related sites and lesson ideas here.
None of these strategies are guaranteed ways to help every student in your class feel motivated to read and write in English, but they are certainly unlikely to make them feel less energized to do so!
Os pesquisadores identificaram quatro maneiras principais de alimentar esse tipo de motivação intrínseca: Apoiar os alunos a sentir um maior senso de autonomia. Em outras palavras, onde eles têm um certo controle sobre o que precisa acontecer e como isso pode ser feito.
Competência – é mais provável que os alunos façam alguma coisa se sentirem que têm a capacidade de obter sucesso ao fazer isso!
Relevância – é quando os alunos sentem que o que estão aprendendo se relaciona com suas vidas presentes ou esperanças futuras.
Relação – fazer uma atividade que ajude os alunos a se sentirem mais conectados com os outros e a se preocuparem com as pessoas a quem respeitam. Então, como esses elementos podem ser na instrução de alfabetização?
autonomia pode ser promovida da seguinte forma: Oferecendo aos alunos a opção de leitura independente. No passado, não era incomum que os alunos de inglês (ELLs) ainda mais antigos fossem capazes de ler apenas livros em inglês escritos para crianças pequenas. No entanto, agora, há uma variedade de livros projetados para – e acessíveis a – adolescentes, especialmente novelas gráficas e não-ficção. Além disso, não faltam sites de leitura on-line que incluem suporte de áudio, animações e vídeos que tornam o texto mais complexo acessível. A escolha não precisa se limitar à leitura! Não é difícil fornecer aos alunos dois avisos de escrita diferentes que ensinam o mesmo resultado de aprendizado desejado. Por exemplo, um dia os alunos estavam aprendendo a escrever um “argumento” (também conhecido como ensaio persuasivo). Depois de aprenderem sobre diferentes desastres naturais, eles deveriam escrever sobre qual deles consideravam o pior a sofrer. Um aluno estava com a cabeça na mesa e não queria fazer isso. Eu sabia que ele era um fã de futebol e perguntei se ele poderia usar a mesma estrutura para escrever sobre por que seu time de futebol favorito era o melhor. Ele aproveitou a chance, foi direto ao trabalho e entregou um ensaio que demonstrava entender os principais componentes da redação de um argumento. Esse era o objetivo do aprendizado, não escrever sobre desastres.
Algumas maneiras de ajudar os alunos a sentirem que desenvolvem mais habilidades incluem: Realizar regularmente avaliações formativas de fluência “de baixo risco” (onde os alunos leem uma breve passagem para um professor por um minuto, que depois rastreia o número de palavras lidas e seu nível de “Prosódia”) pode ser feita regularmente e os alunos podem ver seu próprio progresso. Melhor ainda, os alunos podem registrar essas avaliações e ouvir seu progresso por si mesmos! Fornecer aos alunos organizadores gráficos chamados de “quadros de escrita” e “estruturas de escrita” mais avançadas pode ajudá-los a ter mais sucesso na escrita. Esse tipo de andaime pode fornecer o apoio que os alunos precisam até que se tornem mais proficientes. Os alunos podem ver que a leitura e a escrita podem estar conectadas às suas vidas de várias maneiras, incluindo: Quando se trata de ajudar os alunos a sentir que ler e escrever (e falar e ouvir!) Em inglês é relevante para suas vidas, acho que regularmente destacar os avanços sociais e econômicos de ser capaz de ler e escrever (além de falar e entender) o inglês, além de seus idiomas de origem, é uma estratégia vencedora. Costumo associar um vídeo engraçado relacionado a pesquisas e artigos em uma mini lição para lembrar os alunos de seu valor, além de convidar os alunos a compartilhar como eles acham que aprender inglês pode beneficiá-los. Nada supera o aumento da motivação do aluno para escrever do que fazê-lo para um público autêntico (alguém que não seja seu professor). Seja escrevendo uma receita para ser publicada em um site de culinária, uma opinião política para uma “carta ao editor” de jornal, uma resenha de livro da Amazon ou para inúmeras outras publicações, todos tendemos a nos sentir mais concentrados quando os outros leem nosso trabalho. Muitos estudantes estão muito focados em suas vidas on-line e mostram que o que eles escrevem estará disponível para todo o mundo ver não apenas pode gerar motivação, mas talvez mais reconhecimento de que eles desejam revisar cuidadosamente tudo o que colocam na Internet.
Existem várias maneiras de ajudar os alunos a se conectarem enquanto lêem e escrevem. Algumas são: Uma maneira fácil de ajudar os alunos a se sentirem mais motivados a ler é fazê-los ler um texto em pares – revezando-se na leitura oral dos parágrafos. Os quebra-cabeças dão esse passo ainda mais, fazendo com que pequenos grupos leiam seções de um texto juntos e depois os desafiem a ensinar o que lêem para outras pessoas. Fazer os alunos escreverem juntos – em sala de aula ou on-line – pode ser eficaz para ajudar a desenvolver habilidades de escrita e solidificar relacionamentos. Você pode encontrar uma lista de sites relacionados e ideias de lições aqui. Nenhuma dessas estratégias tem formas garantidas de ajudar todos os alunos de sua turma a se sentirem motivados a ler e escrever em inglês, mas certamente não é provável que os façam sentir menos energia para isso!
Ouça inglês o máximo possível
Não se assuste quando não entender
Foque na pronúncia
Noticiários em inglês
Aprender em um segundo idioma pode ser desafiador, mas como o professor pode fazer uma grande diferença. Veja um resumo das principais ideias.
1- A linguagem é mais do que vocabulário, gramática e ortografia. É moldado por discursos, convenções de gênero e contexto.
2- Os estudantes precisam controlar tanto o registro interpessoal cotidiano quanto o registro acadêmico mais formal para obter sucesso na escola.
3- Os alunos de idiomas virão de várias circunstâncias com uma variedade de recursos, por isso, não faça suposições sobre suas necessidades.
4- Não o deixe em osmose – planeje o aprendizado de idiomas, bem como o aprendizado do currículo.
5- Mantenha o foco em fazer sentido, não em correção.
Incentivar a repetição, reciclagem e redundância.
Use recursos visuais e gestos para apoiar os alunos de idiomas.
6- Em seus recursos de conversação e sala de aula, busque “mais compreensibilidatde”.
7- Receba as primeiras línguas dos seus alunos na sala de aula.
8- Planeje diferentes espaços e atividades para diferentes tipos de conversa.
9- Dê aos alunos de idiomas um pouco mais de tempo de espera.
10- Entenda as demandas específicas de idioma da sua área de currículo.
11- Construa o ciclo de gênero em seu planejamento de aula.
12- Deixe os alunos entrarem no mundo das convenções de gênero.
13- Use o feedback sobre o trabalho dos alunos como uma oportunidade para o aprendizado de idiomas.
15- Observe como os alunos de sua língua estão progredindo e planeje o próximo estágio.
© Universidade de Glasgow
Learning in a second language can be challenging, but a language-aware teacher can make a big difference. Here’s a summary of the main ideas.
- Language is more than vocabulary, grammar and spelling. It is shaped by discourses, genre conventions and context.
- Students need control of both the everyday interpersonal register and the more formal academic register to succeed in school.
- Language learners will come from a variety of circumstances with a variety of resources, so don’t make assumptions about their needs.
- Don’t leave it to osmosis – plan for language learning as well as curriculum learning.
- Keep the focus on making meaning, not on correctness.
- Encourage repetition, recycling and redundancy.
- Use visuals and gestures to support language learners.
- In your talk and classroom resources, aim for ‘comprehensibility plus’.
- Welcome your students’ first languages into the classroom.
- Plan different spaces and activities for different types of talk.
- Give language learners a bit more wait time.
- Understand the particular language demands of your curriculum area.
- Build the genre cycle into your lesson planning.
- Let students into the secrets of genre conventions.
- Use feedback on students’ work as an opportunity for language learning.
- Observe how your language learners are progressing, and plan for the next stage.
© University of Glasgow
Frases ou dizeres para nos levar a pensar.
“A ship is safe in harbor, but that’s not what ships are for.”
John A. Shedd
“Courage is found in unlikely places.”
“You may not always have a comfortable life and you will not always be able to solve all of the world’s problems at once but don’t ever underestimate the importance you can have because history has shown us that courage can be contagious and hope can take on a life of its own.”
“Courage is what it takes to stand up and speak; courage is also what it takes to sit down and listen.”
“Since it is so likely that children will meet cruel enemies let them at least have heard of brave knights and heroic courage.”
“Never bend your head. Always hold it high. Look the world straight in the eye.”
“Courage does not always roar. Sometimes courage is the quiet voice at the end of the day saying, ‘I will try again tomorrow.”
Mary Anne Radmacher
Existem várias formas de ajudar a uma criança no seu desenvolvimento de vocabulário em inglês. Abaixo seguem algumas dessas ideias
You will notice quite a rich and varied vocabulary. We wouldn’t be expecting a child to produce this kind of language, especially if English is an additional language, but the adult can expose the child to this language, inputting key words and expressions associated with different activities in a fun and natural way. Remember that children like playing with words, even if they don’t know what the word means, and this is a valuable opportunity to work on pronunciation.
Children will reap the future benefits of this language rich environment, so closely connected to the activities that they love doing.
Playing with blocks
- use language for counting and sorting: How many are there? Shall we put the blue ones here?
- use positional language: in, on, under, below, behind, next to
- explore language related to size: big, small, long, short
- describe what a child is doing while playing: finding, stacking, pulling, pushing, building, pressing, dragging
- describe shapes and objects the children are making: square, rectangle, tower, house, castle, garden
Dress-ups (and drama)
- describe the costumes (fairy, princess, pirate, king, clown) and actions for getting dressed: put on, pull up/down, zip up, do the buttons up, unbutton, unzip
- highlight the relevant parts of the body: put your arms through here, tie this around your waist/wrist, put these on your feet – first your left foot, then your right foot, put this over your head
- use nursery rhymes and stories to model language for imaginary play
- develop listening comprehension by encouraging the children act out the rhyme or story in their costumes
- extend vocabulary associated with role-play: hospital, airport, artist’s studio, garden centre, vet, doctor, routines (breakfast/lunch/dinner/bed time)
Making and decorating (art and craft)
- name the materials: paint, paintbrush, crayon, felt-tip, marker, card, paper, crepe paper, shiny paper, tissue paper, newspaper, glue, scissors, cotton wool, fabric, sequins, feathers
- describe properties and textures of materials: runny, thick, smooth, hard, long, short, spiky, rough, shiny
- experiment with and describe colour
- use instructions: paint, draw, colour, smudge, blur, blow, copy, pour, make, cut, stick, decorate, hang (it) up
- art appreciation and describing what the children have made, painted or drawn.
Malleable materials (dough, plasticine, clay)
- use language of manipulation: push, pull, drop, squeeze, press, bend, twist, roll, stretch, squash, squish, pinch, flatten, poke, scrape, break apart
- describe length/thickness: longer than, shorter than, the same length as
- use language related to colour and smells
- describe texture: soft, hard, squishy, lumpy, grainy, shiny
- talk about materials that can be added to dough: feathers, sticks, twigs, shells
- explore language related to shapes
Music and movement activities
- use language related to actions, position and parts of the body: put your hands up in the air, draw circles in the air, touch your nose, wriggle your fingers, jump, hop, lie face down on the floor, lie on your back, move over there, come closer, curl up into a ball, stretch your arms out as wide as you can, take a nap
- name musical instruments: shaker, drum, recorder, xylophone, block, triangle, bell, tambourine
- use language to describe sounds: loud, quiet, soft, high, low, long, short, fast, slow, tap, shake, scrape, knock, tick, hum, howl
- familiarise children with a range of sounds through onomatopoeia
- use songs and rhymes to work on pronunciation, rhythm, stress and intonation
Toys and small world play
- extend vocabulary related to a particular topic: park, zoo, farm, hospital, transport
- comment on the objects, toys or figurines the children are playing with
- comment on the settings, scenes, themes or storylines children are developing as they play
- describe the position of the things the children are playing with: behind, next to, in, on, under
- describe the pictures and colours on the puzzles
- comment on the shape of the puzzle pieces: rectangle, square, triangle, circle
- comment on the position of the puzzle pieces: up/down, here/there
- encourage the social aspects of using puzzles: take turns, it’s your turn next, share
Sand play and water play
- use language related to equipment and resources: brush, spade, scoop, spoon, cup, jug, bucket, sieve, cutters, rake, comb, funnel, sponge, soap, bubbles, straw, ladle, tea pot, watering can
- extend vocabulary related to imaginary play: boats, diggers, bulldozers, tractors, treasure, dinosaurs, pirates, gardens, tea party, firefighter, plumber, dolls
- use descriptive language: wet, dry, damp, gritty, hard, lumpy, flat, smooth, wavy, sticky, cold, frozen, clean, dirty
- use language related to size, shape and position
- describe capacity and quantity: enough, more, less, too much/little, overflowing, how much/many? a pile/cup of…
- describe actions or what is happening: it’s fallen down, it’s gone, flatten, pour, tip, fill, scoop, cover, stir, splash, leak, drip, float, sink, trickle, spray, wash, dry.
© British Council
Through interactions we can support and extend a child’s learning and development, particularly in the area of communication and language.
Apart from building an emotional connection with the child through interactions, children benefit from hearing lots of talk, conversations and words. In 2012, Associate Professor at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, Meredith Rowe, carried out a study which looked at what contributes most to a child’s later vocabulary development. She found that:
- children’s vocabulary at 30 months was influenced by the quantity of words parents used one year earlier,
- their vocabulary at 42 months was influenced by parents’ use of a variety of sophisticated words one year earlier,
- their vocabulary at 54 months was influenced by parents’ use of narratives and explanations one year earlier.
Adults can interact by talking, listening and responding to the child.
Even if a child is not yet able to communicate verbally, the adult can contribute to the exchange using language. For example:
The child grizzles because he is feeling hungry.
Adult: I can see you’re upset. Would you like some milk?
The child rubs her eyes.
Adult: You look sleepy. I think it’s time for a nap.
The child flaps her arms excitedly.
Adult: I know you like that song! It goes la, la, la, la!
Child squeals in delight.
By showing genuine interest in the child and adding interest to what the child has offered, we are building trust, communication, and developing the child’s language skills all at the same time.
We can support and extend a child’s language development, just by being with them and interacting in a natural way.
© British Council
How can we provide a proper environment for children to develop?
Here are a few examples:
- Provide optimal conditions for rich play: space, time, flexible resources, choice, control, warm and supportive relationships.
- Make materials easily accessible at child height, to ensure everybody can make choices.
- Provide experiences and activities that are challenging but achievable.
- Provide activities that require give and take or sharing for things to be fair.
- Plan first-hand experiences and challenges appropriate to the development of the children.
- Convey to each child that you appreciate them and their efforts.
- Ensure children have uninterrupted time to play and explore.
- Incorporate recognisable and predictable routines to help children to predict and make connections in their experiences.
- Use puppets and other props to encourage listening and responding when singing a familiar song or reading from a story book.
- When you use songs and nursery rhymes, help children understand the words by using actions as well.
- Help children to predict and order events coherently, by providing props and materials that encourage children to re-enact, using talk and action.
- Set up displays that remind children of what they have experienced, using objects, artefacts, photographs and books.
- Display pictures and photographs showing familiar events, objects and activities and talk about them with the children.
- Provide activities which help children to learn to distinguish differences in sounds, word patterns and rhythms.
- Encourage correct use of language by telling repetitive stories, and playing games which involve repetition of words or phrases.
- Follow young children’s lead and have fun together while developing vocabulary, e.g. saying ‘We’re jumping up’, ‘crouching down low’.
- Talk through and comment on some activities to highlight specific vocabulary or language structures, e.g. “You’ve got a blue ball. I’ve got a green ball. Hannah’s got a red ball”.
- Provide collections of interesting things for children to sort, order, count and label in their play.
- Provide different sizes and shapes of containers in water play, so that children can experiment with quantities and measures.
- Offer a range of puzzles with large pieces and knobs or handles to support success in fitting shapes into spaces.
- Provide a wide range of materials, resources and sensory experiences to enable children to explore colour, texture and space.
- Provide space and time for movement and dance both indoors and outdoors.
- Lead imaginative movement sessions based on children’s current interests such as space travel, zoo animals or shadows.
- Provide a place where work in progress can be kept safely.
© Adapted from: Development Matters in the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS). London: Early Education, 2012.
Every child is unique. Children develop different skills and knowledge at their own pace and in different ways. As adults, it is important that we respect and value these different ways and rates of developing and learning.
A child who is not speaking may be actively listening and may need time to process what they are hearing before saying anything. It is important to value listening as well as speaking – non verbal responses from young children are perfectly acceptable. They show that the child has understood the message.
Having fun with the sounds of a language, experimenting with words in rhymes and songs, and saying things over and over again, are all things young children enjoy. When children do these things, they are learning new words, language structures and pronunciation, without even realizing it!
While in some cases translating may be necessary in order to put a child at ease, very young children may not understand even if you say it to them in their home language. Young children acquire language naturally, and this is also true for an additional language. Using mime and gesture, showing the children what you want them to do, and encouraging them to join in, are generally more effective ways of communicating meaning. The more English children hear, the more they will be able to produce in the future.
According to the Early Years Foundation Stage framework (England), and bearing in mind that children develop at their own rates and in their own ways, children typically develop the following things within these age ranges:
- Copies familiar expressions, e.g. Oh dear! All gone!
- Explores and experiments using senses and whole body.
- Listens with interest to the noises adults make when they read stories.
- Is interested in others’ play and is starting to join in.
- Runs safely on whole foot.
- Is aware that some actions can hurt or harm others.
- Repeats words or phrases from familiar stories.
- Recites some number names in sequence.
- Experiments with blocks, colors and marks.
- Responds to simple instructions, e.g. Put your toys away.
- Can catch a large ball.
- Notices what adults do, imitating what is observed and then doing it spontaneously when the adult is not there.
- Can play in a group.
- Holds books the correct way up and turns pages.
- Uses a pencil and holds it effectively.
- Extends vocabulary by grouping, naming, and exploring the sounds of new words.
- Writes own name and other things such as labels or captions.
- Constructs with a purpose in mind, using a variety of resources.
Some advice for parents and educators.
- A child who is not speaking may be actively listening and may need time to process what they are hearing before saying anything. It is important to value listening as well as speaking by giving the child lots of exposure to the language.
- Non verbal responses from young children are perfectly acceptable. They show that the child has understood the message.
- Don’t force a child to speak, they will when they are ready. Forcing a child to speak before they are ready could actually delay language development.
- Be genuine in your interactions with young children.
- Use mime and gesture as you would if you were talking to the child in their home language.
- Value the home language. The skills that children develop while learning their home language are transferable to an additional language.
Want to know more?
If you want to know more about how children learn and how they acquire language, or you have completed the activities with time to spare, have a look at the links and videos below.
- Read this article on how to help young children learn English as another language.
- Watch What do babies think? by psychologist Alison Gopnik.
- Watch The linguistic genius of babies by professor of speech and hearing sciences Dr Patricia Kuhl.
- Read this article about how talking to babies and young children builds their brains.
© British Council