Um Pouco de Sabedoria por Diana Princesa de Gales.

Little Bit of Wisdom …

… from Diana, Princess of Wales

“Carry out a random act of kindness with no expectation of reward, safe in the knowledge that one day someone might do the same for you.”

“Family is the most important thing in the world.”

“I think the biggest disease the world suffers from in this day and age is the disease of people feeling unloved. I know that I can give love for a minute, for half an hour, for a day, for a month, but I can give.”

“Everyone of us needs to show how much we care for each other and, in the process, care for ourselves.”

“I want my boys to have an understanding of people’s emotions, their insecurities, people’s distress, and their hopes and dreams.”

“Hugs can do great amounts of good – especially for children.”

Source: editor@activityvillage.co.uk

Em português

Um Pouco de sabedoria …

… de Diana, princesa de Gales

“Realize um ato aleatório de bondade sem expectativa de recompensa, sabendo que um dia alguém pode fazer o mesmo por você”.

“A família é a coisa mais importante do mundo”.

“Acho que a maior doença que o mundo sofre neste dia e idade é a doença das pessoas que se sentem amadas. Eu sei que posso dar amor por um minuto, por meia hora, por um dia, por um mês, mas posso dar.”

“Todos nós precisamos mostrar o quanto nos cuidamos e, no processo, nos cuidamos”.

“Eu quero que meus meninos tenham uma compreensão das emoções das pessoas, suas inseguranças, angústia das pessoas e suas esperanças e sonhos”.

“Os abraços podem fazer grandes quantidades de bem – especialmente para crianças”.

Fonte: editor@activityvillage.co.uk

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Terminology for Reading and Listening

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Reading for gist/Skimming

Reading quickly to get a general understanding of a written text, eg reading a description of a city to find out if it sounds like somewhere you’d like to visit.

Reading for specific information/Scanning

Searching for a particular piece of information in a written text, eg reading a description of a city only to find out which country it’s in.

Reading/listening for detail

Reading or listening more carefully so that you get a full understanding of the text, eg reading a description of a city to find out everything about it.

Listening for gist

Getting a general understanding of something you hear, eg listening to the weather forecast and deciding you might need to take an umbrella when you go out.

Listening for specific information

Listening for a particular piece of information, eg listening to the weather forecast to find out what the temperature will be tomorrow.

Inferring meaning

Making guesses about what is not stated explicitly in a text, eg listening or reading a conversation and deciding that the people are brother and sister without them saying so.

Coherence

Organising ideas in a logical way when speaking or writing so that the listener or reader can follow our ideas.

Cohesion

Joining sentences together using words like and, but and because so our language flows more easily.

Interactive strategies

Strategies we use when we are speaking, eg showing you are listening to other people by saying things like, mmmm or uh-uh or oh!

Turn taking

An interactive strategy which is about knowing when you can join in a conversation and signalling when you think someone else should speak.

Fluency

For speaking; this is speaking without a lot of hesitation and too many long pauses. For writing; this means you can write without stopping for a long time to think about what to write.

Vantagens de Aulas Particulares de Inglês

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How young children learn English as another language

Introduction

Young children are natural language acquirers; they are self-motivated to pick up language without conscious learning, unlike adolescents and adults. They have the ability to imitate pronunciation and work out the rules for themselves. Any idea that learning to talk in English is difficult does not occur to them unless it’s suggested by adults, who themselves probably learned English academically at a later age through grammar-based text books.

Read the notes below about young children learning English as another language. You can also download these notes as a booklet. Right-click on the link below to download the booklet to your computer. You may print this booklet.

The advantages of beginning early

  • Young children are still using their individual, innate language-learning strategies to acquire their home language and soon find they can also use these strategies to pick up English.
  • Young children have time to learn through play-like activities. They pick up language by taking part in an activity shared with an adult. They firstly make sense of the activity and then get meaning from the adult’s shared language.
  • Young children have more time to fit English into the daily programme. School programmes tend to be informal and children’s minds are not yet cluttered with facts to be stored and tested. They may have little or no homework and are less stressed by having to achieve set standards.
  • Children who have the opportunity to pick up a second language while they are still young appear to use the same innate language-learning strategies throughout life when learning other languages. Picking up third, fourth, or even more languages is easier than picking up a second.
  • Young children who acquire language rather than consciously learn it, as older children and adults have to, are more likely to have better pronunciation and feel for the language and culture. When monolingual children reach puberty and become more self-conscious, their ability to pick up language diminishes and they feel they have to consciously study English through grammar-based programmes. The age at which this change occurs depends greatly on the individual child’s developmental levels as well as the expectations of their society.

Stages in picking up English

Spoken language comes naturally before reading and writing.

Silent period
When babies learn their home language, there is a ‘silent period’, when they look and listen and communicate through facial expression or gestures before they begin to speak. When young children learn English, there may be a similar ‘silent period’ when communication and understanding may take place before they actually speak any English words.

During this time parents should not force children to take part in spoken dialogue by making them repeat words. Spoken dialogues should be one-sided, the adult’s talk providing useful opportunities for the child to pick up language. Where the adult uses parentese (an adjusted form of speech) to facilitate learning, the child may use many of the same strategies they used in learning their home language.

Beginning to talk
After some time, depending on the frequency of English sessions, each child (girls often more quickly than boys) begins to say single words (‘cat’, ‘house’) or ready-made short phrases (‘What’s that?’, ‘It’s my book’, ‘I can’t’, ‘That’s a car’, ‘Time to go home’) in dialogues or as unexpected statements. The child has memorised them, imitating the pronunciation exactly without realising that some may consist of more than one word. This stage continues for some time as they child picks up more language using it as a short cut to dialogue before they are ready to create their own phrases.

Building up English language
Gradually children build up phrases consisting of a single memorised word to which they add words from their vocabulary (‘a dog’, ‘a brown dog’, ‘a brown and black dog’) or a single memorised language to which they add their own input (‘That’s my chair’, ‘Time to play’). Depending on the frequency of exposure to English and the quality of experience, children gradually begin to create whole sentences.

Understanding

Understanding is always greater than speaking and young children’s ability to comprehend should not be underestimated, as they are used to understanding their home language from a variety of context clues. Though they may not understand everything they hear in their home language, children grasp the gist – that is they understand a few important words and decipher the rest using different clues to interpret the meaning. With encouragement they soon transfer their ‘gist’ understanding skills to interpret meaning in English.

Frustration

After the initial novelty of English sessions, some young children become frustrated by their inability to express their thoughts in English. Others want to speak quickly in English as they can in their home language. Frustration can often be overcome by providing children with ‘performance’ pieces like ‘I can count to 12 in English’ or very simple rhymes, which consist of ready-made phrases.

Mistakes

Children should not be told they have made a mistake because any correction immediately demotivates. Mistakes may be part of the process of working out grammar rules of English or they may be a fault in pronunciation. ‘I goed’ soon becomes ‘went’ if the child hears the adult repeat back ‘yes, you went’; or if the adult hears ‘zee bus’ and repeats ‘the bus’. As in learning their home language, if children have an opportunity to hear the adult repeat the same piece of language correctly, they will self-correct in their own time.

Gender differences

Boys’ brains develop differently from girls’ and this affects how boys pick up language and use it. Sometimes mixed classes make little provision for boys, who may be overshadowed by girls’ natural ability to use language. If young boys are to reach their potential, they need some different language experiences with girls and their achievements should not be compared with those of girls.

Language-learning environments

Young children find it more difficult to pick up English if they are not provided with the right type of experiences, accompanied by adult support using ‘parentese’ techniques.

  • Young children need to feel secure and know that there is some obvious reason for using English.
  • Activities need to be linked to some interesting everyday activities about which they already know, eg sharing an English picture book, saying a rhyme in English, having an ‘English’ snack.
  • Activities are accompanied by adult language giving a running commentary about what is going on and dialogues using adjusted parentese language.
  • English sessions are fun and interesting, concentrating on concepts children have already understood in their home language. In this way children are not learning two things, a new concept as well as new language, but merely learning the English to talk about something they already know.
  • Activities are backed up by specific objects, where possible, as this helps understanding and increases general interest.

Reading

Children who can already read in their home language generally want to find out how to read in English. They already know how to decode words in their home language to get meaning from text and, if not helped to decode in English, may transfer their home language-decoding techniques and end up reading English with the home language accent.

Before they can decode English, young children need to know the 26 alphabet letter names and sounds. As English has 26 letters but on average 44 sounds (in standard English), introducing the remaining sounds is better left until children have more experience in using language and reading,

Beginning reading in English goes easily if young children already know the language they are trying to read. Many children work out by themselves how to read in English if they have shared picture books with adults or learned rhymes, as they are likely to have memorised the language. Reading what they know by heart is an important step in learning to read as it gives children opportunities to work out how to decode simple words by themselves. Once children have built up a bank of words they can read, they feel confident and are then ready for a more structured approach.

http://learnenglishkids.britishcouncil.org/en/parents/articles/how-young-children-learn-english-another-language

Chinese New Year – Ano Novo Chinês

On January 19th it is Chinese New Year. Do you know the story of The Chinese Zodiac, and how it started?

Many people have wondered over the years how it was that the rat, the smallest of all the creatures, was given the honour of having the first year of the Chinese Zodiac named after him.

This is the story.

A very long time ago, the Jade Emperor, who ruled the heavens of China, sent a message to all the animals asking them to come together so that he could give each of them a year, which would make it easier for the people of China to keep track of time. The cat and the rat were good friends and decided to travel to meet the Jade Emperor together. When it came time to leave, however, the cat was taking a nap. The rat, realising that he would have to use all his cunning to be noticed by the Jade Emperor, left his friend sleeping, and set off on his own. This is why there is no year named after the cat, and also why cats have hated rats ever since. When the rat arrived, the Jade Emperor welcomed him and the other animals and told them that they should all take part in a swimming race. Once again, the rat realised that he would have to be very clever if he wanted to win the race. He found the largest, strongest animal, which was the ox, and pleaded with him to let him ride on its head. The ox was kind and strong, and agreed that they would swim across together. The rat travelled safely across the river on the ox’s back, but, just before they reached the other side, climbed over the ox’s head, jumped onto land, and reached the finish line first. The rat had proved its cunning, and the Jade Emperor named the first year after the rat and the second year after the ox.

According to the place the animals got on the race, the Emperor gave each of them an year to represent.

Do you know your sign on the Chinese Zodiac? Do you know what it represents? So check on the link and have fun.

http://www.astrology.com/chinese-astrology Chinese new year

Em Português

Dia 19/02 será o Ano Novo Chinês. Você conhece a história do zodíaco chinês e como tudo começou?

Muitas pessoas se perguntam ao longo dos anos como foi que o rato, a menor de todas as criaturas, foi dada a honra de ter o primeiro ano do zodíaco chinês em sua homenagem.

Esta é a história.

Há muito tempo atrás, o Imperador de Jade, que governou os céus da China, enviou uma mensagem a todos os animais, pedindo-lhes para se unir para que ele pudesse dar a cada um deles um ano. Isso tornaria mais fácil para as pessoas da China para manter a noção do tempo. O gato e o rato eram bons amigos e decidiram viajar para conhecer o Imperador de Jade juntos. Quando chegou a hora de sair, no entanto, o gato estava tirando uma soneca. O rato, percebendo que ele teria que usar toda a sua astúcia para ser notado pelo Imperador de Jade, deixou seu amigo dormir e partiu sozinho. É por isso que não há nenhum ano em homenagem ao gato, e também por isso que os gatos odeiam ratos desde então. Quando o rato chegou, o Imperador de Jade congratulou-se com ele e com os outros animais e lhes disse que todos eles deveriam participar de uma corrida de natação. Mais uma vez, o rato percebeu que teria que ser muito inteligente, se quisesse ganhar a corrida. Ele encontrou o maior e mais forte animal, que foi o boi e implorou-lhe para deixá-lo andar em sua cabeça. O boi era gentil e forte, e concordaram que iriam atravessar a nado junto. O rato viajou com segurança através do rio na parte traseira do boi, mas, pouco antes de chegar ao outro lado, subiu sobre a cabeça do boi, pulou para a terra, e chegou à linha de chegada em primeiro lugar. O rato tinha provado a sua astúcia ao Imperador de Jade e foi nomeado com primeiro ano, após o rato e no segundo ano foi para boi.

De acordo com o lugar que os animais chegaram na corrida, o Imperador deu a cada um deles um ano para representar.

Você conhece o seu signo no zodíaco chinês? Sabe o que ele representa? Cheque no link e se diverta!

http://www.astrology.com/chinese-astrology

Dez Mandamentos para Motivar o Aprendizado de Línguas

Segue boa leitura para profissionais que trabalham com o ensino de idioma.

O restante da matéria pode ser encontrado no link abaixo.
1 Criar um exemplo pessoal com o seu próprio comportamento
2- Desenvolver um bom relacionamento com os alunos
3- Aumentar auto-confiança linguística dos alunos
4- Preparar as aulas interessante
5- Promover a autonomia do aluno
6- Personalizar o processo de ensino
7- Aumentar o direcionamento de metas dos alunos
8- Familiarizar os alunos sobre a cultura do idioma
9- Criar um ambiente descontraído e agradável na sala de aula
10- Apresentar as tarefas de forma adequada

Anuncio Paula Lyra ELT School

In English

Good article for professionals working with the language of instruction.

The rest of it can be found on the link below.

‘Ten commandments for motivating language learners’:
1 Set a personal example with your own behaviour
2- Develop a good relationship with the learners
3- Increase the learners’ linguistic self-confidence
4- Make the language classes interesting
5- Promote learner autonomy
6- Personalise the learning process
7- Increase the learners’ goal-orientedness
8- Familiarize learners with the target culture
9- Create a pleasant relaxed atmosphere in the classroom
10- Present the tasks properly

http://oupeltglobalblog.com/2011/05/06/10-commandments-for-motivating-language-learners/

Inglês- Intensivo de Férias

Você está precisando desenferrujar seu Inglês? Vai fazer alguma viagem pro exterior? Precisa tirar aquele diploma que vai melhorar sua carreira? Criança de férias sem ter o que fazer? Anuncio Paula Lyra ELT School

Então porque não aproveitar o período para estudar Inglês!

Fale comigo, pois tenho aulas individuais e customizadas para atender à sua necessidade específica. Atividades dinâmicas com vídeo, áudio e jogos que ajudam a memorização e aprendizado da língua.

Não deixe passar mais tempo, coloque essa meta para 2015 edscn04171.jpg invista no Inglês agora!

Dúvidas sobre aprendizado bilíngue

Seguindo com esse tema, seguem alguma perguntas e resposta sobre o trabalho em biliguismo em Paula Lyra ELT School.

·        1 – O que é ensino bilíngüe?

O programa tem como meta oferecer uma formação cultural internacional, através de aulas dinâmicas que incentivem a participação e  interação com a língua Inglesa. Este programa promove o multiculturalismo, a cidadania, fluência e proficiência na língua através de atividades acadêmicas ou lúdicas.

·        2 – Qual a idade preferencial para a aquisição de uma língua estrangeira?

Estudos demonstram que, o quanto antes um aluno for exposto a uma segunda língua, mais rápida se dará à aquisição e a fluência, pois, dentre alguns motivos, o cérebro ainda não diferenciará os fonemas da língua mãe criando assim a ausência do sotaque, tão comum em alunos que aprenderam uma segunda língua quando adolescentes ou mesmo já adultos.

·        3 – Como um aluno pode se beneficiar com este programa?

Há diversas maneiras de um aluno se beneficiar com o aprendizado de uma segunda língua. Ao contrário do que se pensa, o aprendizado de uma língua adicional potencializa o aprendizado da primeira língua e o desenvolvimento de áreas sociais e físicas estando diretamente relacionado à habilidade duradoura de comunicação com muitas pessoas.

·        4 – Em quanto tempo um aluno se torna bilíngüe?

A aquisição de uma língua estrangeira está diretamente ligada ao tempo de exposição à nova língua, dedicação e habilidade. Em geral em um ambiente centrado na língua Inglesa e, obviamente, respeitando-se as diferenças individuais de cada criança, este aprendizado se dará em um prazo de 2 a 4 anos para uma boa fluência. Como a linguagem, porém, é algo muito dinâmico,  necessita estar sempre sendo utilizada para não ser esquecida ou ficar obsoleta.

·        5 – Como acontece o aprendizado?

Uma das formas de desenvolver as áreas de conhecimento é através de projetos. É comum aluno da mesma faixa etária se interessar por assuntos parecidos. Acredita-se que o aprendizado acontece de uma forma mais significativa quando há motivação e participação. Esta maneira de trabalhar propicia inúmeras oportunidades de pesquisa, interação e troca de experiências com os alunos e também com os pais, que sempre participam mandando materiais, pesquisando em casa ou mesmo vindo à escola para compartilhar seus conhecimentos.

·        6 – Há confusão com a língua materna?

Durante o processo inicial de aquisição da língua, o aluno fará alguma mistura com palavras de ambas as línguas, porém logo em seguida, os mecanismos do cérebro identificarão o uso de cada língua individualmente e esta mistura não acontecerá mais.

 .        7 – Existem avaliações ou provas regulares?

O processo de avaliação é sistemático e contínuo, não há datas de avaliações previamente agendadas, estas acontecem gradativamente.

.     8 –  Como se desenvolvem as atividades no dia a dia?

Na sala de aula desenvolvem-se uma série de atividades, entre elas: Calendário, Histórias e Roda de Conversa (um momento diário onde as crianças e professor trocam experiências, aprendem sobre assuntos novos, cantam e trabalham com o corpo) Dramatização, Colagem e Desenho, Culinária, Horta. Os alunos participam também de atividades de livre escolha, que são trabalhadas a partir de uma série de materiais disponíveis na classe. Os vídeos e softwares são usados como material de apoio para nossos projetos.

·        9 – Existe tarefa de casa?

Há alguns exercícios para reforço e fixação do que foi aprendido em sala.

·        10 – Qual é o material didático utilizado?

O material utilizado existente em sala de aula é para o uso coletivo dos alunos:  livros, CDS, vídeos, fantoches, softwares, jogos, cards, etc. Todo o material é importado por editoras internacionais e livrarias.

 

In English

· 1 – What is bilingual education ?

The program aims to provide an international cultural training through dynamic lessons that encourage participation and interaction with the English language . This program promotes multiculturalism , citizenship , fluency and proficiency in the language through academic or recreational activities . 

· 2 – What is the best age for the acquisition of a foreign language ?

Studies show that the sooner a student is exposed to a second language , the faster will be the acquisition and fluency because , among several reasons ,  the brain doesn’t differentiate phonemes from mother tongue thus creating a lack of accent, so common for students who have learned a second language as teenagers or even after adults . 

· 3 – How can a student can from this program ?

There are several ways for a student to benefit from learning a second language . Contrary to popular belief , learning an additional language enhances the learning of the first language and the development of social and physical areas is directly related to the enduring ability to communicate with many people . 

· 4 – How long a student becomes bilingual ?

The acquisition of a foreign language is directly linked to the exposure time to the new language , dedication and skill. Generally in a project focused on English language and obviously respecting the individual differences of each child , this learning may occur in  2 to 4 years for a good fluency. As language , however, is something very dynamic , needs to be constantly used  not to be forgotten or become obsolete . 

· 5 – How is the learning ?

One of the ways to develop the knowledge areas is through projects . Students of the same age show interest in similar issues . It is believed that learning becomes more significant when there is participation and motivation . This way of working provides numerous opportunities for research , interaction and exchange of experiences with students and with parents who participate by sending materials , researching at home or even coming to school to share their knowledge . 

· 6 – Is there any confusion with the first language?

During the initial process of language acquisition , the student will do some mixing with words of both languages ​​, but soon after , the brain mechanisms identify the use of each language individually and this mixture will not happen again . 

 . 7 – Are There any regular assessments or tests ?

The evaluation process is systematic and continuous ,  there are no dates previously scheduled , these happen gradually . 

. 8 – How are activities in class ?

There are a series of activities , including : Calendar , Stories, Circle Time (daily time where children and teacher exchange experiences , learn about new subjects , sing and work with the body ) Dramatization , and Collage drawing , Cooking , Gardening . Students also participate in free choice activities , which are crafted from a range of materials available in class . The videos and software are used as support material for our projects . 

· 9 – Is there any homework ?

There are some exercises for strengthening and fixing what was learned in the classroom. 

· 10 – What is the teaching materials used ?

The existing material used in the classroom is for the collective use of students : books , CDs , videos , puppets , software , games , cards , etc.  All material is imported by international publishers or bookstores.