The origins of English

The story of the English language began in the fifth century when Germanic tribes invaded Celtic-speaking Britain and brought their languages with them. Later, Scandinavian Vikings invaded and settled with their languages too. In 1066 William I, from modern-day France, became king, and Norman-French became the language of the courts and official activity. People couldn’t understand each other at first, because the lower classes continued to use English while the upper classes spoke French, but gradually French began to influence English. An estimated 45 per cent of all English words have a French origin. By Shakespeare’s time, Modern English had developed, printing had been invented and people had to start to agree on ‘correct’ spelling and vocabulary.


Task 1:

Task 2 :

Remote teaching tips

This publication offers a range of practical tips and advice for remote teaching in all contexts.

Technology has already transformed our century. Smartphones, cloud computing, social media and videoconferencing are only a few of the major innovations that have exploded onto the scene. They have changed our lives and completely changed the ways in which we communicate and access information and learning. 

Yet in 2020 teachers have also had to face another unexpected challenge – the Covid-19 pandemic. We know many children have missed learning during school closures and too many lack the conditions for remote learning. But the more that teachers can provide remote teaching the better.

These tips provide new ideas for teachers less familiar with remote teaching and provide fresh insights for teachers who already teach remotely. See the list of tips and guidance below:

  • Getting started with online teaching
  • Keeping your learners safe online
  • Lesson planning for teaching live online
  • A menu of ideas for online lessons
  • Supporting neurodiversity in online teaching
  • Inclusion in remote teaching contexts
  • Helping parents and caregivers to support remote learning
  • Supporting your child to learn remotely at home
  • Maximising speaking opportunities in online lessons
  • Maintaining student motivation while teaching remotely
  • Using Facebook to teach English remotely
  • Using mobile messenger apps to teach English remotely
  • Teaching English via television or YouTube
  • Teaching English using SMS
  • Teaching English via telephone calls
  • Teaching English via radio
  • Teaching English remotely with limited technology
  • Zoom: top tips for online English teaching


Using Idioms Like a Native

Idioms are commonly used in spoken and written English. They add colour and interest to what we are saying. But how often do we actually find idioms in their original and full form? In today’s blog, we are going to be showing you how to use idioms like a Native English speaker!

1. Shorten the Idiom

Native English speakers are usually confident that their readers or listeners will recognise the idiom, so well-known phrases rarely need to be given in full. You may hear someone being warned not to count their chickens (don’t count your chickens before they are hatched) when they assume a future plan will be successful, or a friend may hint that her colleagues took advantage of the boss’s absence with when the cat’s away! (when the cat’s away, the mice will play).

Some idioms can be shortened in other ways such as long story short (to cut a long story short).

“Anyway, long story short, it turns out Drake isn’t really his father.”

Sometimes only a fragment of the original idiom remains. It is common to see restaurants offering early bird menus or prices (the early bird catches the worm). Someone may describe a terrible idea as a lead balloon (go down like a lead balloon). I recently heard someone talking about a baby and bathwater situation (don’t throw the baby out with the bathwater) when the whole of a plan was rejected because of a problem with only part of it.

2. Reverse the idiom

Another common way of changing an idiom is to reverse its meaning. For example, if you don’t want to deal with a problem straight away, you may put it on the back burner, but if something needs immediate attention, you can put it on the front burner. In your home village, you might be a big fish in a small pond but if you move to a large city you could end up a small fish in a very big pond.

Many idioms are very versatile and can be changed in a variety of ways. A carrot and stickapproach involves offering rewards and making threats to persuade someone to do something. However, you may come across examples like the following:

“Why use a stick when a carrot will work better?”

“Their approach is all stick and no carrot.”

“They are using every carrot and stick at their disposal.”

3. Adapt the idiom

One of the most attractive aspects of idioms is their adaptability. It is often possible to substitute one or more of the words in them to adapt to a particular situation. When two people have opposite tastes, you can say one man’s meat is another man’s poison. But how about one man’s junk is another man’s treasure or one man’s madness is another man’s genius? The possibilities are endless.

Substitutions can also be used to alter the meaning of an idiom. For example, a plain-talking person will call a spade a spade, but someone who is more frank than necessary may call a spade a shovel. On the other hand, someone who is reluctant to speak plainly may call a spade a gardening implement.

So, why not have a go at adapting some idioms yourself? After all, when in Rome…

Source :,7P23N,9YU4NM,VD5PV,1

Você ensina Criatividade e Pensamento Crítico?

Confira essas cinco dicas com base em nosso documento de posição de habilidades globais!

1. Tente usar eventos nas notícias para organizar um debate ou discussão em sala de aula! Por exemplo, você pode pedir aos alunos que realizem um debate sobre as mudanças climáticas. Isso também desenvolverá suas habilidades de cidadania e comunicação!

2. Tente fazer perguntas abertas que permitam múltiplas respostas, como “Quais são as quatro coisas interessantes que você fez nas férias?” Isso deixará espaço para análise e interpretação, incentivando os alunos a pensar de forma crítica e criativa.

3. O trabalho do projeto é uma ótima maneira de ensinar habilidades globais como criatividade, pensamento crítico e colaboração! Ao trabalhar em grupos, definir sua própria agenda e personalizar sua abordagem, os alunos se sentem mais envolvidos e desenvolvem várias habilidades ao mesmo tempo.

4. Não sabe por onde começar? Comece pequeno! Todas as lições incluem uma curta atividade de aprendizado de idiomas que inclua o foco na criatividade ou no pensamento crítico.

Mais tarde, você pode passar para atividades mais focadas e aprofundadas, incluindo o trabalho do projeto.

5. Tente pedir aos alunos que criem um relatório digital sobre uma questão global como mudança climática ou desigualdade! Isso os ajudará a pensar criticamente e a aprender a resolver problemas. Eles poderiam gravar o relatório em um dispositivo móvel e compartilhá-lo com seus colegas de classe para obter feedback.

In English

Do you teach Creativity and Critical Thinking?

Check out these five top tips based on our Global Skills position paper!

1. Try using events in the news to hold a debate or discussion in class! For example, you could ask students to hold a debate on climate change. This will also develop their citizenship and communication skills!

2. Try asking open-ended questions that allow for multiple responses, such as “What are four interesting things you did on holiday?” This will leave room for analysis and interpretation, encouraging students to think critically and creatively.

3. Project work is a great way to teach global skills like creativity, critical thinking, and collaboration! By working in groups, setting their own agenda, and personalizing their approach, learners feel more engaged and develop multiple skills at once.

4. Not sure where to begin? Start small! Every lesson, include a short language-learning activity than includes a focus on creativity or critical thinking.

Later, you can move on to more focused, in-depth activities, including project work.

5. Try asking your learners to create a digital report on a global issue like climate change or inequality! This will help them think critically and learn to solve problems. They could record the report on a mobile device and share it with their classmates for feedback.

Source: Oxford University Press

Como começou a ser celebrado o Thanksgiving

Assista ao vídeo e entenda a história

A história por trás do Black Friday.

As primeiras origens e história

O termo “sexta-feira negra” foi realmente associado à crise financeira, não às compras de vendas.

Dois financistas de Wall Street, Jim Fisk e Jay Gould, compraram juntos uma quantidade significativa de ouro dos EUA na esperança de que o preço global subisse e, por sua vez, pudessem vendê-lo com lucros enormes.

Na sexta-feira, 24 de setembro de 1869, no que foi chamado de “Black Friday”, o mercado de ouro dos EUA entrou em colapso e as ações de Fisk e Gould deixaram os barões de Wall Street em falência.

Não foi até anos posteriores que o período pós-Ação de Graças se associou ao nome.

Nos últimos anos, circulou um boato impreciso, sugerindo que os proprietários de plantações do sul poderiam comprar escravos a um preço com desconto após o Dia de Ação de Graças, no século XIX.

Learn the difference between the United Kingdom and Great Britain

Dialogue explaining which nations form the UK.

Man: So where are you from?

Woman: Scotland. Are you Scottish too?

Man: Well, no, I’m English actually, but, you know, it’s all, like, the same thing, isn’t it?

Woman: Not exactly.

Man: Go on! Isn’t Scotland just like, well, a bit of England?

Woman: No, it is not!

Man: Sorry, Britain I mean.

Woman: Britain is not England!

Man: Well, yeah, I know that. I’m not stupid or anything, but Britain’s, like, England, Scotland and Wales, isn’t it?

Woman: Not exactly.

Man: Yeah, it is – the UK, the United Kingdom.

Woman: The United Kingdom is Scotland, England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

Man: Oh, I see, but we’re all, like, the same nation, aren’t we?

Woman: Not really. Four nations, one state.

Man: Oh, I get it! So the UK (is), like, the same as Great Britain.

Woman: Great Britain is a geographical term – it’s a big island with Scotland, England and Wales on it.

Man: All right, but we all have the same prime minister, don’t we?

Woman: Yes, and the same head of state.

Man: The Queen!

Woman: Exactly.

Man: And the same government?

Woman: Well, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have their own local parliaments.

Man: Oh. I see.

Woman: It’s complicated.

Man: Yeah, I can see that.

A Message to ESL Teachers.

Learning in a second language can be challenging, but you as a language-aware teacher can make a big difference. Here’s a summary of the main ideas:

  • Language is more than vocabulary, grammar and spelling. It is shaped by discourses, genre conventions and context.
  • Students need control of both the everyday interpersonal register and the more formal academic register to succeed in school.
  • Language learners will come from a variety of circumstances with a variety of resources, so don’t make assumptions about their needs.
  • Don’t leave it to osmosis – plan for language learning as well as curriculum learning.
  • Keep the focus on making meaning, not on correctness.
  • Encourage repetition, recycling and redundancy.
  • Use visuals and gestures to support language learners.
  • In your talk and classroom resources, aim for ‘comprehensibility plus’.
  • Welcome your students’ first languages into the classroom.
  • Plan different spaces and activities for different types of talk.
  • Give language learners a bit more wait time.
  • Understand the particular language demands of your curriculum area.
  • Build the genre cycle into your lesson planning.
  • Let students into the secrets of genre conventions.
  • Use feedback on students’ work as an opportunity for language learning.
  • Observe how your language learners are progressing, and plan for the next stage.

Como se motivar para estudar Inglês

Four primary ways to nurture this kind of intrinsic motivation:

  1. Supporting students to feel a greater sense of autonomy.  In other words, where they have a degree of control over what needs to happen and how it can be done.
  2. Competence – students are more likely to do something if they feel like they have the ability to be successful doing it!
  3. Relevance, which is when students feel that what they are learning relates to their present lives or future hopes.
  4. Relatedness – doing an activity that helps students feel more connected to others, and helps them feel cared about by people whom they respect

So, what can these elements look like in literacy instruction?


Autonomy can be promoted by:

  • Providing students choice in independent reading.  In the past, it was not unusual for even older English Language Learners (ELLs) to only be able to read English books written for toddlers.  However, now, a variety of books are available that are designed for – and accessible to – teenagers, especially graphic novels and nonfiction. In addition, there is no shortage of online reading sites that including audio support, animations and videos that make more complex text accessible.
  • Choice does not have to be limited to reading!  It’s not difficult to provide students with two different writing prompts that teach the same desired learning outcome.  For example, one day students were learning how to write an “argument” (also known as a persuasive essay).  After having learned about different natural disasters, they were supposed to write about which one they felt was the worst to experience.  One student had his head on the desk and didn’t want to do it.  I knew he was a football fan, and asked him if he could use the same structure to write about why his favorite football team was the best one.  He leaped at the chance,  got right to work, and delivered an essay that demonstrated he understood the key components of writing an argument.  That was the learning goal, not writing about disasters.


Some ways to help students feel like they developing more skills include:

  • Regularly giving “Low-stakes” formative fluency assessments (where students read a short passage to a teacher for a minute, who then tracks the number of words read and their level of “prosody”) can be done regularly and then students can see their own progress.  Even better, students can record these assessments and hear their progress for themselves!
  • Providing students with graphic organizers called “writing frames” and more advanced “writing structures” can assist them be more successful in their writing.  This kind of scaffolding can provide the support students need until they become more  proficient. 


Students can see that reading and writing can be connected to their lives in many ways, including:

  • When it comes to helping students feel like reading and writing (and speaking and listening!) in English is relevant to their lives, I find that regularly highlighting the social and economic advances of being able to read and write (as well as speak and understand spoken) English, in addition to their home languages, is a winning strategy.  I often pair a related funny video with research and articles in a mini-lesson to remind students of its value, in addition to inviting students to share how they think learning English can benefit them.
  • Nothing beats enhancing student motivation for writing than having them do it for an authentic audience (someone other than their teacher).  Whether it’s writing a recipe to be posted on a cooking site, a political opinion for a newspaper “letter to the editor,” an Amazon book review, or for countless other outlets, we all tend to feel more focused when others are going to read our work.  Many students are very focused on their online lives, and showing that what they write will be available for all the world to see can not only generate motivation, but perhaps more recognition that they want to carefully review everything they put on the Internet.


There are several ways to help students connect to each other while reading and writing.  A few are:

  • An easy way to help students feel more motivated to read is to have them read a text in pairs – taking turns orally reading paragraphs to each other.  Jigsaws take this step even further by having small groups read sections of a text together and then challenging them to teach what they read to others.
  • Having students write together – either in class or online – can be an effective to help develop writing skills, and to solidify relationships.  You can find a list of related sites and lesson ideas here.

None of these strategies are guaranteed ways to help every student in your class feel motivated to read and write in English, but they are certainly unlikely to make them feel less energized to do so!

Em português

Os pesquisadores identificaram quatro maneiras principais de alimentar esse tipo de motivação intrínseca: Apoiar os alunos a sentir um maior senso de autonomia. Em outras palavras, onde eles têm um certo controle sobre o que precisa acontecer e como isso pode ser feito.

Competência – é mais provável que os alunos façam alguma coisa se sentirem que têm a capacidade de obter sucesso ao fazer isso!

Relevância – é quando os alunos sentem que o que estão aprendendo se relaciona com suas vidas presentes ou esperanças futuras.

Relação – fazer uma atividade que ajude os alunos a se sentirem mais conectados com os outros e a se preocuparem com as pessoas a quem respeitam. Então, como esses elementos podem ser na instrução de alfabetização?


autonomia pode ser promovida da seguinte forma: Oferecendo aos alunos a opção de leitura independente. No passado, não era incomum que os alunos de inglês (ELLs) ainda mais antigos fossem capazes de ler apenas livros em inglês escritos para crianças pequenas. No entanto, agora, há uma variedade de livros projetados para – e acessíveis a – adolescentes, especialmente novelas gráficas e não-ficção. Além disso, não faltam sites de leitura on-line que incluem suporte de áudio, animações e vídeos que tornam o texto mais complexo acessível. A escolha não precisa se limitar à leitura! Não é difícil fornecer aos alunos dois avisos de escrita diferentes que ensinam o mesmo resultado de aprendizado desejado. Por exemplo, um dia os alunos estavam aprendendo a escrever um “argumento” (também conhecido como ensaio persuasivo). Depois de aprenderem sobre diferentes desastres naturais, eles deveriam escrever sobre qual deles consideravam o pior a sofrer. Um aluno estava com a cabeça na mesa e não queria fazer isso. Eu sabia que ele era um fã de futebol e perguntei se ele poderia usar a mesma estrutura para escrever sobre por que seu time de futebol favorito era o melhor. Ele aproveitou a chance, foi direto ao trabalho e entregou um ensaio que demonstrava entender os principais componentes da redação de um argumento. Esse era o objetivo do aprendizado, não escrever sobre desastres.


Algumas maneiras de ajudar os alunos a sentirem que desenvolvem mais habilidades incluem: Realizar regularmente avaliações formativas de fluência “de baixo risco” (onde os alunos leem uma breve passagem para um professor por um minuto, que depois rastreia o número de palavras lidas e seu nível de “Prosódia”) pode ser feita regularmente e os alunos podem ver seu próprio progresso. Melhor ainda, os alunos podem registrar essas avaliações e ouvir seu progresso por si mesmos! Fornecer aos alunos organizadores gráficos chamados de “quadros de escrita” e “estruturas de escrita” mais avançadas pode ajudá-los a ter mais sucesso na escrita. Esse tipo de andaime pode fornecer o apoio que os alunos precisam até que se tornem mais proficientes. Os alunos podem ver que a leitura e a escrita podem estar conectadas às suas vidas de várias maneiras, incluindo: Quando se trata de ajudar os alunos a sentir que ler e escrever (e falar e ouvir!) Em inglês é relevante para suas vidas, acho que regularmente destacar os avanços sociais e econômicos de ser capaz de ler e escrever (além de falar e entender) o inglês, além de seus idiomas de origem, é uma estratégia vencedora. Costumo associar um vídeo engraçado relacionado a pesquisas e artigos em uma mini lição para lembrar os alunos de seu valor, além de convidar os alunos a compartilhar como eles acham que aprender inglês pode beneficiá-los. Nada supera o aumento da motivação do aluno para escrever do que fazê-lo para um público autêntico (alguém que não seja seu professor). Seja escrevendo uma receita para ser publicada em um site de culinária, uma opinião política para uma “carta ao editor” de jornal, uma resenha de livro da Amazon ou para inúmeras outras publicações, todos tendemos a nos sentir mais concentrados quando os outros leem nosso trabalho. Muitos estudantes estão muito focados em suas vidas on-line e mostram que o que eles escrevem estará disponível para todo o mundo ver não apenas pode gerar motivação, mas talvez mais reconhecimento de que eles desejam revisar cuidadosamente tudo o que colocam na Internet.


Existem várias maneiras de ajudar os alunos a se conectarem enquanto lêem e escrevem. Algumas são: Uma maneira fácil de ajudar os alunos a se sentirem mais motivados a ler é fazê-los ler um texto em pares – revezando-se na leitura oral dos parágrafos. Os quebra-cabeças dão esse passo ainda mais, fazendo com que pequenos grupos leiam seções de um texto juntos e depois os desafiem a ensinar o que lêem para outras pessoas. Fazer os alunos escreverem juntos – em sala de aula ou on-line – pode ser eficaz para ajudar a desenvolver habilidades de escrita e solidificar relacionamentos. Você pode encontrar uma lista de sites relacionados e ideias de lições aqui. Nenhuma dessas estratégias tem formas garantidas de ajudar todos os alunos de sua turma a se sentirem motivados a ler e escrever em inglês, mas certamente não é provável que os façam sentir menos energia para isso!

Researchers have identified