International Women’s Day 2019

International Women’s Day is celebrated each year all around the world on March 8th. It is considered as a worldwide event which celebrates every woman’s victories & achievements ranging from social to political things. It is also observed by various communities all around the world such as charity farms, government organizations, business grounds, and etc. This special day also brings to notice about one of the most important factors that is ‘Gender Equality’. This remarkable celebration started all way back from 1900’s and nowadays various big organization and industries have already started to consider this day as an important day all around the world. There is also an interesting thing to look on this day. There are a lot’s of colors which effectively signify this day. Globally purple color is used to symbolize women. But there is a brief history behind this color code. Initially purple, green and white colors were used to symbolize and represent women’s equality.

It was originated back in 1908 from Women’s Social and Political Union which was located in the United Kingdom (UK). The color white is used for symbolizing purity but as a matter of fact, the color white is no longer considered to symbolize the word purity as because many things it is a controversial topic. The color Green symbolizes hope; purple represents women from all round view. There are two new combinations which represent two new concepts about feminism. One is purple with yellow which symbolizes contemporary progressive feminism and another is purple with green which symbolizes traditional norms of feminism. If anyone looks at the timeline then the International Women’s Day from the very beginning was celebrated by communist type countries and active socialists. Later in 1975, it was adopted by United Nations (UN) and now it is now widely celebrated all around the world.

https://www.womensdayquotes.net/

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O Futuro da Língua Inglesa

Book entitled 'English through Practice'

The future of English

All languages change and evolve over time – some have periods of expansion and decline and some eventually die, while new languages emerge. English has a particularly long and interesting history of development and change.

The English we use today bears little resemblance to the English of Shakespeare and even less to that of Chaucer in the 14th century. Similarly, there are significant differences between the varieties of English used in different parts of the world and by different groups of users within and between societies. Arguably, the pace of change has sped up in the last fifty or so years, partly because of technological innovations and partly because of increased mobility and migration between social and cultural groups.

It is difficult to predict the future of English, as Professor David Crystal said, we could all be speaking Martian in the future. In his talk on the future of English, as a global language, Crystal explains that language becomes global for one reason only – the power of the people who speak it. As Crystal says, “Power always drives language. English will remain a global power if certain things happen to maintain the power of the nations who speak it.”

Both Crystal and other linguists envisage scenarios where languages other than English will become the future dominant global language such as Arabic, Spanish, Chinese. It is already the case that while English remains the most used language of the internet, the proportion of English used has significantly been replaced by a wide range of other languages as can be seen in these figures:

Languages used on the internetLanguages used on the internet from Graddol 2006:4 – 2000 data from Global Reach, 2005 from Miniwatts International Ltd) (Cl

Por quê eu não consigo aprender Inglês?

Muitas alunos me perguntam por que têm tanta dificuldade em aprender inglês. Eu sempre respondo que, a professora é só um dos meios de aprendizagem. Se não houver engajamento do aluno em estudar, ler, escutar músicas, assistir séries, conversar com nativos, esse aprendizado será mais difícil.

Segue um texto com excelente explicação sobre esse tema. Não deixem de ler.

A lista abaixo resume como o envolvimento com o idioma pode ser observado. Lembre-se de que os alunos também podem se engajar em maneiras que não são observáveis e, inversamente, podem fingir estar engajados para satisfazer o professor.

Critérios para identificar o envolvimento com a linguagem (EWL) (Svalberg, 2012: 378, adaptado de Svalberg 2009: 247)

Cognitivo

Quão alerta é o aluno?

O aluno parece enérgico ou letárgico?

Ele parece notar os recursos de linguagem / interação?

Como focado?

A atenção do aluno está na linguagem (como objeto ou meio) ou não?

A mente do aprendiz parece vagar?

Quão reflexivo? Quão crítico / analítico?

O raciocínio do aprendiz é indutivo ou baseado em memória / imitação?

O aluno percebe e reflete ou simplesmente reage?

Com relação à língua-alvo, o aluno compara, faz perguntas, infere / tira conclusões?

Afetivo

Quão disposto é o aluno a se envolver com a linguagem?

O aluno é retirado ou ansioso para participar?

Quão proposital?

O aluno parece entediado ou não focado na tarefa, ou estar focado?

Quão autônomo?

O comportamento do aluno é dependente ou independente?

Social

Como interativo

Interage, verbalmente ou de outra forma, com os outros para aprender?

Como apoiar os outros?

por exemplo. por comportamentos verbais ou outros?

O aluno se envolve em negociação e andaimes?

Líder ou seguidor?

As interações do aluno são reativas ou iniciadas?

© Universidade de Leicester

How engagement with language might be observed

The list below summarizes how engagement with language might be observed. Remember that learners may also engage in ways that are not observable, and conversely they can pretend to be engaged in order to satisfy the teacher.

Criteria for identifying engagement with language (EWL) (Svalberg, 2012: 378, adapted from Svalberg 2009: 247)

Cognitive

How alert is the learner?

  • Does the learner seem energetic or lethargic?
  • Does he or she seem to notice language/interaction features?

How focused?

  • Is the learner’s attention on the language (as object or medium) or not?
  • Does the learner’s mind seem to wander?

How reflective?; How critical/analytical?

  • Is the learner’s reasoning inductive or memory/imitation based?
  • Does the learner notice and reflect, or simply react?
  • With regard to the target language, does the learner compare, ask questions, infer/ draw conclusions?

Affective

How willing is the learner to engage with language?

  • Is the learner withdrawn or eager to participate?

How purposeful?

  • Does the learner seem bored or not focused on the task, or to be focused?

How autonomous?

Is the learner’s behaviour dependent or independent?

Social

How interactive

  • Does he or she interact, verbally or otherwise, with others to learn?

How supportive of others?

  • e.g. by verbal or other behaviours?
  • Does the learner engage in negotiation and scaffolding?

Leader or follower?

  • Are the learner’s interactions reactive or initiating?

O Poder dos Testes

Vivemos em um mundo onde as pessoas têm opiniões diferentes sobre a sociedade. Isto é especialmente verdadeiro quando se trata de entender onde está o poder e quem o exerce.

Leia os dois extratos seguintes dos livros que abordam a questão do uso social e político dos testes de linguagem.

Extrato 1. De Elana Shohamy (2000). O poder dos testes. Longman: Harlow, pp. 15-17.

“Os usos dos resultados dos testes têm efeitos prejudiciais para os participantes, já que tais usos podem criar vencedores e perdedores, sucessos e fracassos, rejeições e aceitações. As pontuações dos testes são muitas vezes os únicos indicadores para colocar pessoas em níveis de classe, para conceder certificados e prêmios, para determinar se uma pessoa será autorizada a continuar em estudos futuros, para decidir sobre uma profissão, para participar de aulas de educação especial, para participar de honra. aulas, para ser aceito no ensino superior e para obter empregos … Os testes são usados como um método de impor certos comportamentos sobre aqueles que estão sujeitos a eles. Os testes são capazes de ditar aos participantes o que eles precisam saber, o que aprenderão e o que aprenderão. Os candidatos estão dispostos a fazê-lo, a fim de maximizar suas pontuações, tendo em conta os efeitos prejudiciais que os resultados podem ter sobre suas vidas ”

Extrato 2: Glenn Fulcher (2015). Reexaminar os testes de linguagem: uma pesquisa filosófica e social. Londres e Nova York: Routledge, p. 155.

“Embora testes e avaliações pressupor desigualdade, é uma desigualdade de resultados, não de oportunidades. Kariya e Dore (2006) fazem uma distinção entre os ‘igualitaristas comunais’ revolucionários que distribuem a renda, o prestígio e o poder igualmente entre todos os membros da sociedade, e ‘igualitaristas meritocráticos que estão interessados principalmente na igualdade de oportunidades para competir por resultados que possam ser Embora o qualificador “vastamente” possa ser questionável em uma democracia moderna, é o que hoje chamamos de igualitarismo meritocrático que motivou a compreensão vitoriana da igualdade. Significava a remoção do privilégio, a provisão de tal educação que levaria ao sufrágio universal e oportunidade para todos na sala de exame, sujeita ao impacto inevitável do background socioeconômico (como a capacidade de pagar por aulas particulares). Em suma, essas foram as características críticas de uma sociedade democrática, e o teste é uma parte essencial do mecanismo que faz com que funcione. ”(Fulcher, 2015, p. 155).

In English

The power of tests

We live in a world where people hold different views about society. This is especially true when it comes to understanding where power lies and who exercises it.

Read the following two extracts from books that address the question of the social and political use of language tests.

Extract 1. From Elana Shohamy (2000). The Power of Tests. Longman: Harlow, pp. 15 – 17.

“The uses of test results have detrimental effects for test takers since such uses can create winners and losers, successes and failures, rejections and acceptances. Test scores are often the sole indicators for placing people in class levels, for granting certificates and prizes, for determing whether a person will be allowed to continue in future studies, for deciding on a profession, for entering special education classes, for participating in honour classes, for getting accepted into higher education and for obtaining jobs….Tests are used as a method of imposing certain behaviours on those who are subject to them. Tests are capable of dictating to test takers what they need to know, what they will learn and what they will be taught. Test takers are willing to do so in order to maximize their scores, given the detrimental effects the results may have on their lives”

Extract 2: Glenn Fulcher (2015). Re-examining Language Testing: A Philosophical and Social Inquiry. London & New York: Routledge, p. 155.

“Although testing and assessment presupposes inequality, it is an inequality of outcomes, not of opportunities. Kariya and Dore (2006) make a distinction between the revolutionary ‘communal egalitarians’ who would distribute income, prestige and power equally among all members of society, and ‘meritocratic egalitarians who are interested primarily in equality of opportunity to compete for outcomes that may be vastly unequal.’ While the qualifier ‘vastly’ may be objectionable in a modern democracy, it is nevertheless what we now call meritocratic egalitarianism that motivated the Victorian understanding of equality. It meant the removal of privilege, the provision of such education as would lead to universal suffrage and opportunity for all in the examination hall, subject to the inevitable impact of socioeconomic background (such as the ability to pay for private tuition). In short, these were the critical features of a democratic society, and testing is an essential part of the mechanism that makes it work.” (Fulcher, 2015, p. 155).

Inglês será sempre a língua Global?

Global business speaks English

Segue excelente matéria. Não deixe de conferir.

With the continuing globalisation of trade and commerce, many organisations, from great multinationals to small companies do business around the world and need to communicate with clients and competitors, many of whom may have a different first language. Very often, the language adopted as a common language or lingua franca is English.

As a recent article in the Harvard Business Review puts it, ‘Global Business Speaks English’.

This is an additional video, hosted on YouTube.

The video is also available here if you are unable to access YouTube.

Reflection – the role of English in global business

Do you agree with Dr Tsedal Neeley about the role of English in global business? Are there any negative implications of adopting English as a company lingua franca?

What do you understand by the terms ‘dial up’ and ‘dial down’ in relation to language use? Do you agree that native speakers need to ‘dial down’ and non-native speakers need to ‘dial up’? If so, how would they do this?

Who has the authority nowadays to set the rules for what is correct and what is incorrect English?

The unprecedented spread of one language as an international lingua franca has socio-economic, political and ideological consequences.

Two key issues debated include:

  • whether the spread of English as an international means of communication serves to sustain the privilege and power of its native speakers (what Phillipson refers to as ‘linguistic imperialism’ (1992)) or whether reasons for learning English now are more pragmatic than ideological in nature (Bisong 1995)
  • who, if anyone, ‘owns’ English, now that is used on such an intensive scale globally – for example, does the term native speaker still have relevance when large numbers of people have a very high, nativelike level of competence; when many children in countries outside the traditional ‘native speaker heartlands’, i.e. the US, UK, Ireland, Canada and Australia etc., are learning English as a first language; and when most interactions in English take place without a so-called native speaker even being present ?

Terminologia e Dicas sobre Reading

Segue um excelente material explicando sobre a importância das etapas do aprendizado de leitura,como coerência, coesão, fluência, etc. Feito pela British Council

Reading for gist/Skimming

Reading quickly to get a general understanding of a written text, eg reading a description of a city to find out if it sounds like somewhere you’d like to visit.

Reading for specific information/Scanning

Searching for a particular piece of information in a written text, eg reading a description of a city only to find out which country it’s in.

Reading/listening for detail

Reading or listening more carefully so that you get a full understanding of the text, eg reading a description of a city to find out everything about it.

Listening for gist

Getting a general understanding of something you hear, eg listening to the weather forecast and deciding you might need to take an umbrella when you go out.

Listening for specific information

Listening for a particular piece of information, eg listening to the weather forecast to find out what the temperature will be tomorrow.

Inferring meaning

Making guesses about what is not stated explicitly in a text, eg listening or reading a conversation and deciding that the people are brother and sister without them saying so.

Coherence

Organising ideas in a logical way when speaking or writing so that the listener or reader can follow our ideas.

Cohesion

Joining sentences together using words like and, but and because so our language flows more easily.

Interactive strategies

Strategies we use when we are speaking, eg showing you are listening to other people by saying things like, mmmm or uh-uh or oh!

Turn taking

An interactive strategy which is about knowing when you can join in a conversation and signalling when you think someone else should speak.

Fluency

For speaking; this is speaking without a lot of hesitation and too many long pauses. For writing; this means you can write without stopping for a long time to think about what to write.