Skills for Reading Quickly

The first time you read a text intensively:

  • Focus on the content words (usually nouns, verbs, adjectives)

It is easy to read this by focusing on the content words in bold.

  • Read in groups of two or more words (read phrases not words) eg subject + verb + object

At the age of 16 / most students take exams / in about ten different subjects

  • Prepositional phrases

At the age of 16 / most students take exams / in about ten different subjects

  • In complex sentences, identify and focus on the main clause

Vary your reading rate

Decrease speed when you find the following:

  • An unfamiliar word not made clear by the sentence: Try to understand it from the way it’s used; then read on and return to it later.
  • Long and uninvolved sentence and paragraph structure: Slow down enough to enable you to untangle them and get an accurate idea of what the passage says.
  • Unfamiliar or abstract ideas: Look for applications or examples which will give them meaning. Demand that an idea “make sense.” Never give up until you understand, because it will be that much easier the next time.
  • Detailed, technical material: This includes complicated directions, abstract principles, materials on which you have little background.

Increase speed when you find the following:

  • Simple material with few ideas new to you:Move rapidly over the familiar.
  • Unnecessary examples and illustrations:These are included to clarify ideas. If not needed, move over them quickly.
  • Detailed explanation: Elaboration which you do not need can be scanned quickly.
  • Broad, generalised ideas: These can be rapidly grasped, even with scan techniques.

Source: https://www.futurelearn.com/courses/pte-success/1/steps/930514

Writing a summary

How to summarise

The following outlines the three stages and steps for summarising.

Before writing:

  • Quickly scan the passage to identify the topic and purpose.
  • Read the passage carefully to understand the content. Try to infer the meaning of any unknown words and phrases.
  • Re-read the passage and note down the topic sentences and key words on your erasable noteboard.

While writing:

  • Stick to the topic and purpose of the text. Keep the meaning and degree of certainty the same as the original writing.
  • Focus on the key words and the main ideas only. Key points in the text will usually be repeated, developed and highlighted; include these in your writing.
  • Write your summary without referring to the original, making sure to include all the main points. Do not include examples or supporting evidence in your summary.
  • Use vocabulary that is relevant to the passage and appropriate for an academic environment. The best test responses use words from the passage appropriately and use synonyms effectively to show variety and range in language use.
  • Do not add anything to the summary that was not present in the original and you should not include your opinion.

After writing

  • Check the content of your summary to make sure it conveys the main ideas in the passage.
  • Check that the basic structure of the sentence is correct. The best test responses are usually complex sentences that consist of a main clause and subordinate clause.
  • Check punctuation and spelling. Make sure your sentence starts with a capital letter and ends with a full stop.
  • Check the length of your summary. Make sure you write only one sentence that is no more than 75 words long. Check your word count after you have typed your response.

How young children learn

Young children learn in an integrated way and not in neat, tidy compartments. A child making shapes out of plasticine is learning maths (shape) and art (texture, shape, design, colour), building fine motor skills (physical development), and hearing or using language to describe shapes, colour, texture, materials and techniques (English). The activity drives the need to communicate.

Young children will learn a language better when they see a genuine need for communication, which is often the language they are hearing or using while they are doing an activity that they enjoy.

While adults can plan a range a activities to enhance the learning experience, not all of them will be motivating for every child. Children more likely to be motivated if the activity or experience is meaningful to them. Taking time to get to know the children and finding out what they are interested in is essential if you want to motivate them and help them learn.

The interactions you have with a child while they are engaged in an activity help develop language and communication in context, making the language learning more memorable and authentic.

Rhymes, songs and chants help children memorise words and sentence structure, and they also help with pronunciation, expression and the rhythm of sentences. Children learn their home language by playing with language in this way, and it’s a fun way for them to learn another language too!

A good story takes children to an imaginary world filled with characters and events that will make them want to find out what happens in the end, and that they will want to hear again, join in retelling, and even retell in their own words. Illustrations and actions help children understand descriptions of characters and events, because they can connect what they are seeing and doing with the language in the story.

Giving clear, simple instructions in English with accompanying actions, gestures or demonstrations is more likely to result in children understanding. Children love copying – the teacher, their parents, older siblings or friends – and will often join in after observing how something is done. Including routines is also a useful way of helping young children understand what is expected of them (e.g. every time we sit on the mat we will hear a story or sing a song). Children may not understand straight away, but giving instructions in English is an excellent way of reinforcing key language, so in the long run it’s worth the effort.

How to answer interview questions


© The University of Sheffield

Strength-based questions

10 comments

A number of employers have introduced ‘strength-based questions’ into interviews. They focus on what you enjoy doing and what you are particularly good at rather than what you can do, so be prepared to be open and honest.

Consider your achievements not just in your studies and at work but also in activities such as sports, interest groups or volunteering. Think about what aspects you enjoy and why you are good at them. This should help you to understand your strengths and prepare you for strength-based questions.

Types of questions that are looking for strengths include:

  • How do you know if you’ve had a good day?
  • Describe something that you learnt recently.
  • What activities come naturally to you?
  • Would you prefer to be a big fish in a small pond or a small fish in a big pond?
  • Describe your favourite interest outside of your work or studies.
  • What have you done that you are most proud of? Why was it significant?
  • What are your greatest strengths? When do you use them?

In describing your strengths, you may be able to provide evidence of the skills and experience asked for in the job description, such as team work, project work, communication skills or customer service.

For example:

  • You enjoy playing the violin as part of an amateur orchestra.
  • You may feel that you’ve had a good day after completing a difficult project on time.
  • You would describe yourself as a good listener, who is able to communicate with people from different backgrounds and cultures.
  • You are particularly proud of your customer service skills and have gone out of your way to help people recently.

Use the comments below if you can think of other strength-based questions, and how you might answer them.

© The University of Sheffield

Entrevista de Trabalho – parte 2

To summarise, if you are to be interviewed for a job you should understand:

  • the services or products the organisation deals with
  • the organisation’s aims and values – what does it say in its ‘mission statement’?
  • how you will fit in with its values. Can you identify its culture?
  • who its clients / customers are
  • who its competitors are and how the organisation compares to them
  • if the organisation has been in the news recently and why?

Researching an institution

If you have applied for a course, you may be invited for an interview, although this varies between departments and at different universities or colleges. If you have applied to do postgraduate research you will almost always be invited to interview.

Before you attend, you should understand:

  • the institution and department that you wish to join and its strengths
  • the aims and values of the institution – what does it say in its ‘mission statement’?
  • how you will fit in with its values. Can you identify its culture?
  • the key areas of research currently being undertaken or the structure of the course
  • the types of careers that students progress on to after completion
  • if the institution has been in the news recently and why?

© The University of Sheffield

Você ensina Criatividade e Pensamento Crítico?

Confira essas cinco dicas com base em nosso documento de posição de habilidades globais!

1. Tente usar eventos nas notícias para organizar um debate ou discussão em sala de aula! Por exemplo, você pode pedir aos alunos que realizem um debate sobre as mudanças climáticas. Isso também desenvolverá suas habilidades de cidadania e comunicação!

2. Tente fazer perguntas abertas que permitam múltiplas respostas, como “Quais são as quatro coisas interessantes que você fez nas férias?” Isso deixará espaço para análise e interpretação, incentivando os alunos a pensar de forma crítica e criativa.

3. O trabalho do projeto é uma ótima maneira de ensinar habilidades globais como criatividade, pensamento crítico e colaboração! Ao trabalhar em grupos, definir sua própria agenda e personalizar sua abordagem, os alunos se sentem mais envolvidos e desenvolvem várias habilidades ao mesmo tempo.

4. Não sabe por onde começar? Comece pequeno! Todas as lições incluem uma curta atividade de aprendizado de idiomas que inclua o foco na criatividade ou no pensamento crítico.

Mais tarde, você pode passar para atividades mais focadas e aprofundadas, incluindo o trabalho do projeto.

5. Tente pedir aos alunos que criem um relatório digital sobre uma questão global como mudança climática ou desigualdade! Isso os ajudará a pensar criticamente e a aprender a resolver problemas. Eles poderiam gravar o relatório em um dispositivo móvel e compartilhá-lo com seus colegas de classe para obter feedback.

In English

Do you teach Creativity and Critical Thinking?

Check out these five top tips based on our Global Skills position paper!

1. Try using events in the news to hold a debate or discussion in class! For example, you could ask students to hold a debate on climate change. This will also develop their citizenship and communication skills!

2. Try asking open-ended questions that allow for multiple responses, such as “What are four interesting things you did on holiday?” This will leave room for analysis and interpretation, encouraging students to think critically and creatively.

3. Project work is a great way to teach global skills like creativity, critical thinking, and collaboration! By working in groups, setting their own agenda, and personalizing their approach, learners feel more engaged and develop multiple skills at once.

4. Not sure where to begin? Start small! Every lesson, include a short language-learning activity than includes a focus on creativity or critical thinking.

Later, you can move on to more focused, in-depth activities, including project work.

5. Try asking your learners to create a digital report on a global issue like climate change or inequality! This will help them think critically and learn to solve problems. They could record the report on a mobile device and share it with their classmates for feedback.

Source: Oxford University Press

Como começou a ser celebrado o Thanksgiving

Assista ao vídeo e entenda a história

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ym4izq-rrow