Alguns de meus queridos alunos que com esforço e dedicação terminaram mais um ano letivo. Parabéns a todos!
Algumas dessas tradições, nós tbm fazemos no Brasil, outras já estudamos durante as aulas. Vale conferir e praticar sua leitura.
Many New Year traditions that we take for granted actually date back to ancient times. This year, ring out the old and ring in the new with a new New Year tradition—or two!
MAKE SOME NOISE
Making a lot of noise—from fireworks to gun shots to church bells—seems to be a favorite pastime around the world.
• In ancient Thailand, guns were fired to frighten off demons.
• In China, firecrackers routed the forces of darkness.
• In the early American colonies, the sound of pistol shots rang through the air.
• Today, Italians let their church bells peal, the Swiss beat drums, and the North Americans sound sirens and party horns to bid the old year farewell.
EAT LUCKY FOOD
Many New Year traditions surround food. Here are a few:
• The tradition of eating 12 grapes at midnight comes from Spain. Revelers stuff their mouths with 12 grapes in the final moments of the year—one grape for every chime of the clock!
• In the southern US, black-eyed peas and pork foretell good fortune. See our recipe for Good Luck Hoppin’ John!
• In Scotland—where Hogmanay is celebrated—people parade down the streets swinging balls of fire.
• Eating any ring-shaped treat (such as a doughnut) symbolizes “coming full circle” and leads to good fortune. In Dutch homes, fritters called olie bollen are served.
• The Irish enjoy pastries called bannocks.
• In India and Pakistan, rice promises prosperity.
• Apples dipped in honey are a Rosh Hashanah (Jewish New Year) tradition.
• In Swiss homes, dollops of whipped cream, symbolizing the richness of the year to come, are dropped on the floors—and allowed to remain there!
HAVE A DRINK
Although the pop of a champagne cork signals the arrival of the New Year around the world, some countries have their own beverage-based traditions.
• Wassail, a punch-like drink named after the Gaelic term for “good health,” is served in some parts of England.
• Spiced “hot pint” is the Scottish version of Wassail. Traditionally, the Scots drank to each others’ prosperity and also offered this warm drink to neighbors along with a small gift.
• In Holland, toasts are made with hot, spiced wine.
GIVE A GIFT
New Year’s Day was once the time to swap presents.
• Gifts of gilded nuts or coins marked the start of the new year in Rome.
• Eggs, the symbol of fertility, were exchanged by the Persians.
• Early Egyptians traded earthenware flasks.
• In Scotland, coal, shortbread and silverware were traditionally exchanged for good luck.
PUT YOUR BEST FOOT FORWARD
In Scotland, the custom of first-footing is an important part of the celebration of Hogmanay, or New Year’s Eve Day.
After midnight, family and friends visit each other’s home. The “first foot” to cross a threshold after midnight will predict the next year’s fortune. Although the tradition varies, those deemed especially fortunate as “first footers” are new brides, new mothers, those who are tall and dark (and
handsome?) or anyone born on January 1.
TURN OVER A NEW LEAF
The dawn of a new year is an opportune time to take stock of your life.
• Jews who observe Rosh Hashanah make time for personal introspection and prayer, as well as visiting graves.
• Christian churches hold “watch-night” services, a custom that began in 1770 at Old St. Georges Methodist Church in Philadelphia.
• The practice of making New Year’s resolutions, said to have begun with the Babylonians as early as 2600 B.C., is another way to reflect on the past and plan ahead.
NEW YEAR’S FOLKLORE
Some customs and beliefs are simply passed down through the ages. Here are some of our favorite age-old sayings and proverbs.
• On New Year’s Eve, kiss the person you hope to keep kissing.
• If New Year’s Eve night wind blow south, It betokeneth warmth and growth.
• For abundance in the new year, fill your pockets and cupboards today.
• If the old year goes out like a lion, the new year will come in like a lamb.
• Begin the new year square with every man. [i.e., pay your debts!] –Robert B. Thomas, founder of The Old Farmer’s Almanac
So, whether we resolve to return borrowed farm equipment (as did the Babylonians) or drop a few pounds, we’re tapping into an ancient and powerful longing for a fresh start!
HAPPY NEW YEAR!!!!
There are many benefits of studying for older learners, such as increased self-confidence, increased feelings of health and well-being, reduced feelings of isolation, and increased engagement in the community.
Many seniors wish to study a foreign language and there is now substantial evidence that they can learn a new language effectively. My experience is that senior learners are excellent language students for a number of reasons.
Senior students have a wealth of life experience and when they bring this to the classroom they enrich the learning experience of the whole class. Our teachers comment that older learners are excellent students to have in the classroom as they are always happy to talk about their experiences and give their opinions on a wide range of topics.
Senior learners do not normally need a certificate, diploma or university credit; their motivation is intrinsic. They may study for intellectual enjoyment, to socialise with their peers or because it is something they have always wanted to do. In fact, senior learners are very often more highly motivated than younger learners. Their high level of motivation is a great advantage as this has been identified as one of the most important factors in determining successful language learning. The motivation of senior learners is reflected by the fact that they rarely miss a class, participate very actively in the classroom and always do their homework.
We have discovered that there is a strong social component in seniors attending English classes. They often attend class to mix with their peers, forming very strong friendships and socialising together after the class and even in their free time.
Our experience is that senior learners have an extremely positive attitude toward language learning and life in general. They treat both their teachers and their classmates with the utmost respect and politeness. Our teachers often comment on how kind, considerate, and hardworking senior learners are, and what a pleasure they are to teach.
So our experience is that the life experience, motivation to learn, and positive attitude of senior learners provide them with many advantages as language learners. However, there are cognitive, affective and physiological factors which can affect senior language learning. We are going to identify these factors and then look at how you can adapt your courses and practices to meet the needs of older learners.
Helping students hear
Hearing loss may have a direct impact on learning and performance for senior learners. In order to decrease the negative effects of this auditory loss, teachers should try to accommodate the aging ear in a number of ways by:
• speaking clearly and ensuring that the students can see their face and lips.
• adjusting the volume for listenings and videos.
• repeating listening texts.
• using short films and videos which aid listening comprehension as students can see the face and lips of the speakers.
• ensuring that your classrooms have little background noise.
Helping students see
Defective vision increases dramatically as people age. Visual ability is particularly important in education as it is generally accepted that approximately 80% of all learning occurs through vision. To accommodate this loss in vision, here are some steps to follow:
• Use a larger print type for printed text.
• Make sure that senior students sit as close to the board as possible.
• Write very clearly on the board.
• Ensure that classrooms have a lot of natural light and that there is direct lighting for the whiteboard.
As people age the body tends to lose some strength, flexibility and mobility. They may also suffer from arthritis and rheumatism. These changes may make it difficult for older learners to move around the classroom. To compensate for these changes we recommend doing the following things:
• Ensure that older learners have comfortable chairs and tables.
• Allow more time for older students to do whole class communicative activities where students have to stand up and move around the classroom.
Research indicates that cognitive development, recall, and problem solving may show decline with aging. In order to overcome this cognitive decline which may make it more difficult to learn a new language, teachers can help seniors develop and maintain their cognitive ability in a number of ways:
• Integrate memory exercises into classes. Use visual and auditory mnemonic devices, examples and memory associations to help seniors rehearse and later retrieve vocabulary and expressions from long-term memory.
• Systematically repeat and recycle grammar, vocabulary and expressions.
• Encourage students to draw on their wealth of experiences and to use cognitive strategies they have used successfully in the past in their current language learning environment.
• Allow more time for students to produce language without being interrupted.
Building confidence / Reducing stress
Many older learners fear failure and are more anxious than younger learners, perhaps this is because they accept the stereotype of the older learner as a poor language learner or because of previous unsuccessful attempts to learn a foreign language. Older learners need to feel comfortable and trust the teacher and the other students before they participate fully in the language classroom. A key role of the teacher is to reduce anxiety and build trust and self-confidence in the senior learner.
Here are some of the things teachers can do to reduce stress and build self-confidence in older adult learners:
• Find out what our older learners’ motivations are for learning a language and adjust our methodology accordingly.
• Use humanistic techniques to build empathy between the teacher and students, and among the students.
• Reduce the focus on error correction to build learners’ self-confidence and to promote language production.
• Avoid timed tests which may make senior learners anxious.
• Give senior students more time to complete activities.
• Promote a friendly and relaxed atmosphere in the classroom.
My experience is that any difficulties which senior learners may experience in the language classroom can be overcome through adjustments to the learning environment and material, attention to physical, affective and cognitive factors, and the use of an effective teaching methodology which focuses on the learning process rather than academic achievement.
Kieran Donaghy is teacher at UAB Idiomes, Barcelona. He is also the creator of http://film-english.com/, an award-winning website providing free resources for teachers wishing to use video effectively in their classrooms.
Não desista de seu sonho de falar Inglês
- Viajar sozinho ao exterior;
- Conseguir um emprego melhor;
- Navegar na Internet com facilidade;
- Falar com fluência com estrangeiros;
- Passar num exame de proficiência;
- Possibilitar aos seus filhos um aprendizado bilíngue;
- Enfim, curtir um novo aprendizado.
Ainda há tempo. Você merece!
Fale comigo e aprenda no seu ritmo, com uma profissional exclusiva para as suas necessidades.
Segue boa leitura para profissionais que trabalham com o ensino de idioma.
O restante da matéria pode ser encontrado no link abaixo.
1 Criar um exemplo pessoal com o seu próprio comportamento
2- Desenvolver um bom relacionamento com os alunos
3- Aumentar auto-confiança linguística dos alunos
4- Preparar as aulas interessante
5- Promover a autonomia do aluno
6- Personalizar o processo de ensino
7- Aumentar o direcionamento de metas dos alunos
8- Familiarizar os alunos sobre a cultura do idioma
9- Criar um ambiente descontraído e agradável na sala de aula
10- Apresentar as tarefas de forma adequada
Good article for professionals working with the language of instruction.
The rest of it can be found on the link below.
‘Ten commandments for motivating language learners’:
1 Set a personal example with your own behaviour
2- Develop a good relationship with the learners
3- Increase the learners’ linguistic self-confidence
4- Make the language classes interesting
5- Promote learner autonomy
6- Personalise the learning process
7- Increase the learners’ goal-orientedness
8- Familiarize learners with the target culture
9- Create a pleasant relaxed atmosphere in the classroom
10- Present the tasks properly
Tanto adultos como crianças não mantêm a atenção por muito tempo em algo que seja chato ou desinteressante.
Para que uma aula seja envolvente e seu conteúdo aprendido e fixado, não necessariamente esta atividade precisa ser monótona com exercícios de lousa ou de caderno.
Quando alguma atividade acontece em sala de aula, mesmo que esta não envolva leitura, mas que as orientações sejam dadas em Inglês, já se trata de uma aprendizagem.
Ao desenvolvemos um jogo, um artesanato, ou assistimos à um vídeo; se essas atividades estiverem acontecendo em Inglês o aprendizado também está acontecendo em paralelo, mas de uma maneira envolvente.
O ser humano tem diferentes formas de aprender: visual, auditiva, linguística, sinestésica, musical, espacial, lógica e matemática. Todas estas formas devem ser estimuladas durante a aprendizagem para que essa seja facilitada. Através de diferentes tipos de exercícios ao longo das aulas, este objetivo é alcançado de uma maneira gostosa e eficaz.
Não se enganem, pois aulas chatas de cópias da lousa, repetições ou exercícios de gramática não levam ao aprendizado da língua ou fixam mais o conteúdo. Estas apenas cansam e desmotivam o aluno a aprender uma segunda língua.
Quer mais informações, leia outros artigos sobre Ensino Bilíngue em meu blog.