A História do Halloween 🎃

História do Halloween

Halloween cai em 31 de outubro de cada ano na América do Norte e em outras partes do mundo. O que você sabe sobre Halloween? Você celebra isso em seu país? Aqui está um pouco de história sobre isso.

Como muitos outros feriados, Halloween evoluiu e mudou ao longo da história. Há mais de 2.000 anos, as pessoas chamadas celtas viviam no que é agora a Irlanda, o Reino Unido e partes do norte da França. 1 de novembro foi seu dia de ano novo. Eles acreditavam que a noite anterior ao Ano Novo (31 de outubro) era uma época em que os vivos e os mortos se juntaram.

Há mais de mil anos, a igreja cristã recebeu o primeiro dia de todos os santos (também chamado de All Hallows). Este foi um dia santo especial para honrar os santos e outras pessoas que morreram por sua religião. Na noite anterior, All Hallows foi chamado Hallows Eve. Mais tarde, o nome foi alterado para Halloween.

Como os celtas, os europeus da época também acreditavam que os espíritos dos mortos visitariam a Terra no Dia das Bruxas. Eles estavam preocupados com o fato de espíritos malignos causar problemas ou machucá-los. Então naquela noite as pessoas usavam figurinos que pareciam fantasmas ou outras criaturas malignas. Eles pensavam que se eles se vestiam assim, os espíritos pensariam que também estavam mortos e não os prejudicavam.

A tradição do Halloween foi levada para a América pelos europeus imigrantes. Entretanto, algumas das tradições mudaram um pouco. Por exemplo, no Halloween na Europa, algumas pessoas levariam lanternas feitas de nabos. Na América, as abóboras eram mais comuns. Então as pessoas começaram a colocar velas dentro deles e usá-las como lanternas. É por isso que você vê Jack ‘o lanterns hoje.

Hoje em dia Halloween não é geralmente considerado um feriado religioso. É principalmente um dia divertido para crianças. As crianças se vestiram de fantasias como as pessoas faziam mil anos atrás. Mas em vez de se preocuparem com espíritos malignos, eles vão de casa em casa. Eles tocam nas portas e dizem “doçura ou travessura”. O proprietário de cada casa dá doces ou algo especial para cada truque ou treater.

Feliz Dia das Bruxas!

Fonte: http://www.5minuteenglish.com/oct29.htm

History of Halloween

🎃

Halloween falls on October 31st each year in North America and other parts of the world. What do you know about Halloween? Do you celebrate it in your country? Here is a little history about it.

Vocabulary

to evolve (v)– to change little by little

spirit (n)– ghost, some people believe the spirit and body separate when a person dies

holy (adj)– sacred, very good, related to religion. Hallow comes from the word holy.

saint (n)– an honored, holy person

evil (adj)– very, very bad

lantern (n)– lamp or enclosed light that can be carried around

turnip (n)– a purple and white vegetable that grows in the ground

Like many other holidays, Halloween has evolved and changed throughout history. Over 2,000 years ago people called the Celts lived in what is now Ireland, the UK, and parts of Northern France. November 1 was their New Year’s Day. They believed that the night before the New Year (October 31) was a time when the living and the dead came together.

More than a thousand years ago the Christian church named November 1 All Saints Day (also called All Hallows.) This was a special holy day to honor the saints and other people who died for their religion. The night before All Hallows was called Hallows Eve. Later the name was changed to Halloween.

Like the Celts, the Europeans of that time also believed that the spirits of the dead would visit the earth on Halloween. They worried that evil spirits would cause problems or hurt them. So on that night people wore costumes that looked like ghosts or other evil creatures. They thought if they dressed like that, the spirits would think they were also dead and not harm them.

The tradition of Halloween was carried to America by the immigrating Europeans. Some of the traditions changed a little, though. For example, on Halloween in Europe some people would carry lanterns made from turnips. In America, pumpkins were more common. So people began putting candles inside them and using them as lanterns. That is why you see Jack ‘o lanterns today.

These days Halloween is not usually considered a religious holiday. It is primarily a fun day for children. Children dress up in costumes like people did a thousand years ago. But instead of worrying about evil spirits, they go from house to house. They knock on doors and say “trick or treat.” The owner of each house gives candy or something special to each trick or treater.

Happy Halloween!

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Aprendendo Inglês na Terceira Idade

There are many benefits of studying for older learners, such as increased self-confidence, increased feelings of health and well-being, reduced feelings of isolation, and increased engagement in the community. 

Many seniors wish to study a foreign language and there is now substantial evidence that they can learn a new language effectively. My experience is that senior learners are excellent language students for a number of reasons.

Life experience

Senior students have a wealth of life experience and when they bring this to the classroom they enrich the learning experience of the whole class. Our teachers comment that older learners are excellent students to have in the classroom as they are always happy to talk about their experiences and give their opinions on a wide range of topics.

Great motivation

Senior learners do not normally need a certificate, diploma or university credit; their motivation is intrinsic. They may study for intellectual enjoyment, to socialise with their peers or because it is something they have always wanted to do. In fact, senior learners are very often more highly motivated than younger learners. Their high level of motivation is a great advantage as this has been identified as one of the most important factors in determining successful language learning. The motivation of senior learners is reflected by the fact that they rarely miss a class, participate very actively in the classroom and always do their homework.

Social element

We have discovered that there is a strong social component in seniors attending English classes. They often attend class to mix with their peers, forming very strong friendships and socialising together after the class and even in their free time.

Attitude

Our experience is that senior learners have an extremely positive attitude toward language learning and life in general. They treat both their teachers and their classmates with the utmost respect and politeness. Our teachers often comment on how kind, considerate, and hardworking senior learners are, and what a pleasure they are to teach.

So our experience is that the life experience, motivation to learn, and positive attitude of senior learners provide them with many advantages as language learners. However, there are cognitive, affective and physiological factors which can affect senior language learning. We are going to identify these factors and then look at how you can adapt your courses and practices to meet the needs of older learners.

Helping students hear

Hearing loss may have a direct impact on learning and performance for senior learners. In order to decrease the negative effects of this auditory loss, teachers should try to accommodate the aging ear in a number of ways by:

• speaking clearly and ensuring that the students can see their face and lips.

• adjusting the volume for listenings and videos.

• repeating listening texts.

• using short films and videos which aid listening comprehension as students can see the face and lips of the speakers.

• ensuring that your classrooms have little background noise.

Helping students see

Defective vision increases dramatically as people age. Visual ability is particularly important in education as it is generally accepted that approximately 80% of all learning occurs through vision. To accommodate this loss in vision, here are some steps to follow:

• Use a larger print type for printed text.

• Make sure that senior students sit as close to the board as possible.

• Write very clearly on the board.

• Ensure that classrooms have a lot of natural light and that there is direct lighting for the whiteboard.

Mobility

As people age the body tends to lose some strength, flexibility and mobility. They may also suffer from arthritis and rheumatism. These changes may make it difficult for older learners to move around the classroom. To compensate for these changes we recommend doing the following things:

• Ensure that older learners have comfortable chairs and tables.

• Allow more time for older students to do whole class communicative activities where students have to stand up and move around the classroom.

Memory

Research indicates that cognitive development, recall, and problem solving may show decline with aging. In order to overcome this cognitive decline which may make it more difficult to learn a new language, teachers can help seniors develop and maintain their cognitive ability in a number of ways:

• Integrate memory exercises into classes. Use visual and auditory mnemonic devices, examples and memory associations to help seniors rehearse and later retrieve vocabulary and expressions from long-term memory.

• Systematically repeat and recycle grammar, vocabulary and expressions.

• Encourage students to draw on their wealth of experiences and to use cognitive strategies they have used successfully in the past in their current language learning environment.

• Allow more time for students to produce language without being interrupted.

Building confidence / Reducing stress

Many older learners fear failure and are more anxious than younger learners, perhaps this is because they accept the stereotype of the older learner as a poor language learner or because of previous unsuccessful attempts to learn a foreign language. Older learners need to feel comfortable and trust the teacher and the other students before they participate fully in the language classroom. A key role of the teacher is to reduce anxiety and build trust and self-confidence in the senior learner.

Here are some of the things teachers can do to reduce stress and build self-confidence in older adult learners:

• Find out what our older learners’ motivations are for learning a language and adjust our methodology accordingly.

• Use humanistic techniques to build empathy between the teacher and students, and among the students.

• Reduce the focus on error correction to build learners’ self-confidence and to promote language production.

• Avoid timed tests which may make senior learners anxious.

• Give senior students more time to complete activities.

• Promote a friendly and relaxed atmosphere in the classroom.

My experience is that any difficulties which senior learners may experience in the language classroom can be overcome through adjustments to the learning environment and material, attention to physical, affective and cognitive factors, and the use of an effective teaching methodology which focuses on the learning process rather than academic achievement.

Kieran Donaghy is teacher at UAB Idiomes, Barcelona. He is also the creator of http://film-english.com/, an award-winning website providing free resources for teachers wishing to use video effectively in their classrooms. 

Author:

Kieran Donaghy

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Mensagem a todos os Mestres em seu dia

Teachers Day Wishes 🍎

• The best teachers don’t give you the answer, they spark within you the desire to find the answer yourself. Happy Teachers Day!

• I am grateful to be your student. Thank you for challenging me to be my best and instilling in me a passion for learning. Happy Teachers Day!

• My child’s future is so much brighter because of you. Thank you for being an outstanding teacher. Best wishes for Teachers Day.

• Keep calm and study on. Happy Teachers’ Day!

• You deserve recognition for all the sacrifices that you make, you are more than a teacher to me and I THANK YOU!

• Today I celebrate you for being selfless, devoted, hardworking, and the wisest person in the classroom. I am grateful to be your student. Happy Teacher’s Day!

• Wishing you joy and happiness, you are an amazing teacher, and you only deserve the best.

• You are the spark, the inspiration, the guide, the candle to my life. I am deeply thankful that you are my teacher.

🎉🎁💝🎈💕😃🎂🍎

Em Português

Mensagens do dia dos professores

• Os melhores professores não lhe dão a resposta, eles despertam em você o desejo de encontrar a resposta você mesmo. Feliz Dia dos professores!

• Sou grato por ser seu aluno. Obrigado por me desafiar a ser o meu melhor e instilar em mim uma paixão por aprender. Feliz Dia dos professores!

• O futuro do meu filho é muito mais brilhante por você. Obrigado por ser um excelente professor. Os melhores desejos para o Dia dos Professores.

• Mantenha a calma e estude. Feliz Dia dos professores!

• Você merece reconhecimento por todos os sacrifícios que você faz, você é mais do que um professor e EU TE OBRIGADO!

• Hoje eu o celebrei por ser abnegado, dedicado, trabalhador e a pessoa mais sábia na sala de aula. Sou grato por ser seu aluno. Feliz Dia dos professores!

• Desejando-lhe alegria e felicidade, você é um professor incrível, e você merece o melhor.

• Você é a faísca, a inspiração, o guia, a vela para minha vida. Estou profundamente grato por você ser minha professora.

Um Pouco de Sabedoria por Diana Princesa de Gales.

Little Bit of Wisdom …

… from Diana, Princess of Wales

“Carry out a random act of kindness with no expectation of reward, safe in the knowledge that one day someone might do the same for you.”

“Family is the most important thing in the world.”

“I think the biggest disease the world suffers from in this day and age is the disease of people feeling unloved. I know that I can give love for a minute, for half an hour, for a day, for a month, but I can give.”

“Everyone of us needs to show how much we care for each other and, in the process, care for ourselves.”

“I want my boys to have an understanding of people’s emotions, their insecurities, people’s distress, and their hopes and dreams.”

“Hugs can do great amounts of good – especially for children.”

Source: editor@activityvillage.co.uk

Em português

Um Pouco de sabedoria …

… de Diana, princesa de Gales

“Realize um ato aleatório de bondade sem expectativa de recompensa, sabendo que um dia alguém pode fazer o mesmo por você”.

“A família é a coisa mais importante do mundo”.

“Acho que a maior doença que o mundo sofre neste dia e idade é a doença das pessoas que se sentem amadas. Eu sei que posso dar amor por um minuto, por meia hora, por um dia, por um mês, mas posso dar.”

“Todos nós precisamos mostrar o quanto nos cuidamos e, no processo, nos cuidamos”.

“Eu quero que meus meninos tenham uma compreensão das emoções das pessoas, suas inseguranças, angústia das pessoas e suas esperanças e sonhos”.

“Os abraços podem fazer grandes quantidades de bem – especialmente para crianças”.

Fonte: editor@activityvillage.co.uk

A Influência de um Professor

A Teacher’s Influence …

Teaching is and will always be my life. I love my students – kids, teenagers or adults. On the days I am not teaching, I feel empty. It is my great happiness to see my students grow and succeed in learning English.

Paula Lyra.

“I like a teacher who gives you something to take home to think about besides homework.” 

Lily Tomlin

“If kids come to us from strong, healthy functioning families, it makes our job easier. If they do not come to us from strong, healthy, functioning families, it makes our job more important.”

Barbara Colorose

“Teaching is the greatest act of optimism.” 

Colleen Wilcox

“I am not a teacher, but an awakener.” 

Robert Frost

“Teachers can change lives with just the right mix of chalk and challenges.”

Joyce Meyer

“Let us remember: One book, one pen, one child, and one teacher can change the world.”

Malala Yousafzai

“A word of encouragement from a teacher to a child can change a life.”

John C. Maxwell

“A teacher affects eternity; he can never tell where his influence stops.”

Henry Adams

“I touch the future. I teach.”

Christa McAuliffe

Palavras de sabedoria ao redor do mundo

Words of Wisdom from Around the World …
10 proverbs from around the world.

🔷"Slippery ground does not recognise a king."
Kenyan proverb – meaning that even the most powerful people are just human.

🔶"The pillow is the best advisor."
Swedish proverb – meaning that it is always a good idea to "sleep on it" or sleep on a problem.

🔹"A frog in a well does not know the great sea."
Japanese proverb – meaning that there might be more going on than you know about. Try to look at the big picture.

🔶"If the world flooded, it wouldn't matter to the duck."
Turkish proverb – meaning that a problem for you isn't necessarily a problem for everyone.

🔷"Empty barrels make the loudest noise."
Icelandic / Indonesian proverb – meaning that the loudest people aren't always the cleverest.

🔶"When spider webs unite, they can tie up a lion."
Ethiopian proverb – meaning that teamwork can conquer even the biggest problems.

🔷"A bad ballerina blames the hem of her skirt."
Polish proverb – meaning that some people will blame anything rather than themselves for their shortcomings.

🔶"A monkey dressed in silk is still a monkey."
Spanish proverb – meaning that you can cover up what's underneath, but you won't change it.

🔷"The honey only sticks to the moustache of he who licked it."
Arabic proverb – meaning that you can't escape from a crime; evidence will follow you around.

🔶"Shrimp that fall asleep are carried away by the current."
Colombian proverb – meaning, you snooze, you lose!

Source: Activity Village

Em Português
Palavras de sabedoria de todo o mundo …
Esta semana, juntei 10 provérbios de todo o mundo. Alguns me fizeram rir e pensei que fossem divertidas para compartilhar com as crianças.

"Terra escorregadia não reconhece um rei".
Provérbio queniano – o que significa que mesmo as pessoas mais poderosas são apenas humanas.

"O travesseiro é o melhor conselheiro".
Proverbio sueco – o que significa que é sempre uma boa idéia "dormir sobre ele" ou dormir em um problema.

"Um sapo em um poço não conhece o grande mar".
Provérbio japonês – o que significa que pode haver mais acontecimentos do que você sabe. Tente olhar o quadro geral.

"Se o mundo inundasse, não seria importante para o pato".
Proverbio turco – o que significa que um problema para você não é necessariamente um problema para todos.

"Barris vazios fazem o barulho mais alto".
Provérbio islandês / indonésio – o que significa que as pessoas mais altas nem sempre são as mais inteligentes.

"Quando as telhas de aranha se unem, podem amarrar um leão".
Proverbio etíope – o que significa que o trabalho em equipe pode conquistar até mesmo os maiores problemas.

"Uma bailarina ruim culpa a bainha de sua saia".
Provérbio polonês – o que significa que algumas pessoas culparão qualquer coisa em vez de elas mesmas por suas falhas.

"Um macaco vestido de seda ainda é um macaco".
Provérbio espanhol – o que significa que você pode encobrir o que está embaixo, mas você não vai mudar isso.

"O mel só adere ao bigode daquele que o lambeu".
Provérbio árabe – o que significa que você não pode escapar de um crime; A evidência irá segui-lo ao redor.

"Os camarões que dormem são levados pela correnteza".
Provérbio colombiano – o que significa que você dorme, você perde!

Fonte: Activity Village

Todos os 12 Tempos Verbais – uso e explicação

Tenses

Legend

Tenses
moment in time
  • action that takes place once, never or several times
  • actions that happen one after another
  • actions that suddenly take place
Tenses
period of time
  • action that started before a certain moment and lasts beyond that moment
  • actions taking place at the same time
Tenses
Result
  • action taking place before a certain moment in time
  • puts emphasis on the result
Tenses
Course / Duration
  • action taking place before a certain moment in time
  • puts emphasis on the course or duration of the action

Nunca é tarde para aprender a falar Inglês

Muitas pessoas pensam que já passaram da idade apropriada e que não serão mais capazes de aprender a falar Inglês. Eu já ouvi frases como “papagaio velho não aprende a falar” ou “Eu tenho muito vocabulário, mas não sei formar frases” ou “Na hora fico nervoso e esqueço tudo.”

Todos nós passamos por dificuldades ao tentar aprender a fazer algo novo já mais velhos. Seja um esporte, trabalho manual,  estudo, qualquer aprendizagem é mais difícil ao longo dos anos, mas isso não pode ser motivo de desânimo.

É muito comum eu ouvir justificativas como: falta de tempo, dinheiro, transporte, inibição, quando na verdade falta ter coragem para arregaçar as mangas e superar os obstáculos. Hoje em dia existem até cursos de inglês on-line!

Em termos de educação, pesquisas colocaram o Brasil no final da linha entre países com conhecimento de Inglês. Isso é deprimente, especialmente se pensarmos que em breve o Rio irá sediar os Jogos Olímpicos, um evento que envolve conhecimento de Inglês.

Algumas pessoas já passaram por humilhação ou constrangimento ao comentem algum erro e acabaram envolvidas em grande dificuldade. Eu sei de casos com pessoas que já passaram por situações tão embaraçosas que se tornaram cômicas.Todas essas experiências bizarras durante viagens internacionais, entrevistas de emprego, ou reuniões são válidas. O aluno tem de seguir em frente, não se sentir desanimado, ele deve saber que tudo isso faz parte do processo de aquisição da linguagem e relevantes para a fixação do conteúdo.

O mais importante para mim como um professora de Inglês é sobre o sentimento de vitória para os alunos que conseguiram superar as dificuldades e cresceram em sua profissão devido à aprendizagem da língua.

Portanto, meu amigo que está aprendendo Inglês depois adulto, parabéns! Não tenha vergonha de cometer erros, falar, mesmo sem a certeza das palavras, ficar tenso, ou errar na concordância. Vá em frente, porque é só assim que se aprender um novo idioma.

E para aqueles de vocês que ainda têm medo de tentar, deem o primeiro passo. É mais fácil do que vocês pensam!
Pergunte-me como!

In English

It´s Never too late to learn to speak English
Most adults think they have passed the appropriate age and that they will no longer be able to learn to speak English. I’ve heard phrases like “old parrot does not learn to talk” or “I have much vocabulary, but I don´t form sentences” or “I get too nervous and forget everything.”

We all go through difficulties when trying to learn to do something new when we are old. It maybe be a sport, manual work, or study. Any learning is more difficult over the years, but this may not be cause for discontinuance.

It is very common to justify ourselves with excuses of lack of time, money, transport, inhibition and thereby avoid having the courage to roll up the sleeves and overcome barriers. There are now even online English Courses!

In terms of Education, researches put Brazil at the end of the line between countries with knowledge of English Language. This is depressing, especially if we think that we will soon host the Olympics, an event which involves knowledge of English.

Some people have undergone humiliation when referring erroneously or using terms known as false cognates and they ended up involved in great trouble. I know some cases of people who, once abroad, have experienced embarrassing situations that became comical.

All these bizarre experiences during international travels, job interviews, or meetings are valid and are part of the development process of learning a new language. The learner has to move on, do not feel dejected, he should know that it’s all part of the process of language acquisition and that these strange situations are relevant to the fixing of the content.

The most important for me as a teacher of English Language has to be about the feeling of victory for the students who managed to overcome the difficulties and grew up in their profession due to language learning.

So my friend who is learning English as an adult, congratulations! Do not be shy about making mistakes, talk even without the certainty of words, tenses, or of concordance, and go ahead, because it’s just so that you learn a new language. And for those of you who are still afraid to try, take the first step. It’s easier than you think!
Ask me how!

Dez Mandamentos para Motivar o Aprendizado de Línguas

Segue boa leitura para profissionais que trabalham com o ensino de idioma.

O restante da matéria pode ser encontrado no link abaixo.
1 Criar um exemplo pessoal com o seu próprio comportamento
2- Desenvolver um bom relacionamento com os alunos
3- Aumentar auto-confiança linguística dos alunos
4- Preparar as aulas interessante
5- Promover a autonomia do aluno
6- Personalizar o processo de ensino
7- Aumentar o direcionamento de metas dos alunos
8- Familiarizar os alunos sobre a cultura do idioma
9- Criar um ambiente descontraído e agradável na sala de aula
10- Apresentar as tarefas de forma adequada

Anuncio Paula Lyra ELT School

In English

Good article for professionals working with the language of instruction.

The rest of it can be found on the link below.

‘Ten commandments for motivating language learners’:
1 Set a personal example with your own behaviour
2- Develop a good relationship with the learners
3- Increase the learners’ linguistic self-confidence
4- Make the language classes interesting
5- Promote learner autonomy
6- Personalise the learning process
7- Increase the learners’ goal-orientedness
8- Familiarize learners with the target culture
9- Create a pleasant relaxed atmosphere in the classroom
10- Present the tasks properly

http://oupeltglobalblog.com/2011/05/06/10-commandments-for-motivating-language-learners/