Conditionals are complex sentences which use the subordinator if.
There are four main types of conditionals and they differ depending on the time (past, present or future) and on how likely the event or state is.
Look at the following examples. What is the structure of each type? What type of event does each type discuss?
If a student fails the course, they do not progress to the next level.
If the book is returned late, you will receive a fine.
If I had more time, I would edit my essay again.
If the student hadn’t handed the essay in late, he wouldn’t have failed.
How did you go? Let’s see how can you make each type of conditional.
Note: The if clause can be the first clause in the sentence or the second clause.
1 – The speaker stated that if she solve one environmental problem it would be global warming.
2 – The speaker claimed that if the changes been made, the number of people failing the course would have increased.
3 – If you require an extension, you should speak to your lecturer.
4 – If your grades do not improve, you will have to get a tutor.
May all your dreams come true!
Thank you all! 😍🎅🏼🎄
The first time you read a text intensively:
- Focus on the content words (usually nouns, verbs, adjectives)
It is easy to read this by focusing on the content words in bold.
- Read in groups of two or more words (read phrases not words) eg subject + verb + object
At the age of 16 / most students take exams / in about ten different subjects
- Prepositional phrases
At the age of 16 / most students take exams / in about ten different subjects
- In complex sentences, identify and focus on the main clause
Vary your reading rate
Decrease speed when you find the following:
- An unfamiliar word not made clear by the sentence: Try to understand it from the way it’s used; then read on and return to it later.
- Long and uninvolved sentence and paragraph structure: Slow down enough to enable you to untangle them and get an accurate idea of what the passage says.
- Unfamiliar or abstract ideas: Look for applications or examples which will give them meaning. Demand that an idea “make sense.” Never give up until you understand, because it will be that much easier the next time.
- Detailed, technical material: This includes complicated directions, abstract principles, materials on which you have little background.
Increase speed when you find the following:
- Simple material with few ideas new to you:Move rapidly over the familiar.
- Unnecessary examples and illustrations:These are included to clarify ideas. If not needed, move over them quickly.
- Detailed explanation: Elaboration which you do not need can be scanned quickly.
- Broad, generalised ideas: These can be rapidly grasped, even with scan techniques.
How to summarise
The following outlines the three stages and steps for summarising.
- Quickly scan the passage to identify the topic and purpose.
- Read the passage carefully to understand the content. Try to infer the meaning of any unknown words and phrases.
- Re-read the passage and note down the topic sentences and key words on your erasable noteboard.
- Stick to the topic and purpose of the text. Keep the meaning and degree of certainty the same as the original writing.
- Focus on the key words and the main ideas only. Key points in the text will usually be repeated, developed and highlighted; include these in your writing.
- Write your summary without referring to the original, making sure to include all the main points. Do not include examples or supporting evidence in your summary.
- Use vocabulary that is relevant to the passage and appropriate for an academic environment. The best test responses use words from the passage appropriately and use synonyms effectively to show variety and range in language use.
- Do not add anything to the summary that was not present in the original and you should not include your opinion.
- Check the content of your summary to make sure it conveys the main ideas in the passage.
- Check that the basic structure of the sentence is correct. The best test responses are usually complex sentences that consist of a main clause and subordinate clause.
- Check punctuation and spelling. Make sure your sentence starts with a capital letter and ends with a full stop.
- Check the length of your summary. Make sure you write only one sentence that is no more than 75 words long. Check your word count after you have typed your response.
The party was great!
The food was “spooktacular”!
Everyone had fun and enjoyed a lot!
Here are several games and activities to do with children to help them learn and interact.
Playing with blocks
- use language for counting and sorting: How many are there? Shall we put the blue ones here?
- use positional language: in, on, under, below, behind, next to
- explore language related to size: big, small, long, short
- describe what a child is doing while playing: finding, stacking, pulling, pushing, building, pressing, dragging
- describe shapes and objects the children are making: square, rectangle, tower, house, castle, garden
Dress-ups (and drama)
- describe the costumes (fairy, princess, pirate, king, clown) and actions for getting dressed: put on, pull up/down, zip up, do the buttons up, unbutton, unzip
- highlight the relevant parts of the body: put your arms through here, tie this around your waist/wrist, put these on your feet – first your left foot, then your right foot, put this over your head
- use nursery rhymes and stories to model language for imaginary play
- develop listening comprehension by encouraging the children act out the rhyme or story in their costumes
- extend vocabulary associated with role-play: hospital, airport, artist’s studio, garden centre, vet, doctor, routines (breakfast/lunch/dinner/bed time)
Making and decorating (art and craft)
- name the materials: paint, paintbrush, crayon, felt-tip, marker, card, paper, crepe paper, shiny paper, tissue paper, newspaper, glue, scissors, cotton wool, fabric, sequins, feathers
- describe properties and textures of materials: runny, thick, smooth, hard, long, short, spiky, rough, shiny
- experiment with and describe colour
- use instructions: paint, draw, colour, smudge, blur, blow, copy, pour, make, cut, stick, decorate, hang (it) up
- art appreciation and describing what the children have made, painted or drawn.
Malleable materials (dough, plasticine, clay)
- use language of manipulation: push, pull, drop, squeeze, press, bend, twist, roll, stretch, squash, squish, pinch, flatten, poke, scrape, break apart
- describe length/thickness: longer than, shorter than, the same length as
- use language related to colour and smells
- describe texture: soft, hard, squishy, lumpy, grainy, shiny
- talk about materials that can be added to dough: feathers, sticks, twigs, shells
- explore language related to shapes
Music and movement activities
- use language related to actions, position and parts of the body: put your hands up in the air, draw circles in the air, touch your nose, wriggle your fingers, jump, hop, lie face down on the floor, lie on your back, move over there, come closer, curl up into a ball, stretch your arms out as wide as you can, take a nap
- name musical instruments: shaker, drum, recorder, xylophone, block, triangle, bell, tambourine
- use language to describe sounds: loud, quiet, soft, high, low, long, short, fast, slow, tap, shake, scrape, knock, tick, hum, howl
- familiarise children with a range of sounds through onomatopoeia
- use songs and rhymes to work on pronunciation, rhythm, stress and intonation
Toys and small world play
- extend vocabulary related to a particular topic: park, zoo, farm, hospital, transport
- comment on the objects, toys or figurines the children are playing with
- comment on the settings, scenes, themes or storylines children are developing as they play
- describe the position of the things the children are playing with: behind, next to, in, on, under
- describe the pictures and colours on the puzzles
- comment on the shape of the puzzle pieces: rectangle, square, triangle, circle
- comment on the position of the puzzle pieces: up/down, here/there
- encourage the social aspects of using puzzles: take turns, it’s your turn next, share
Sand play and water play
- use language related to equipment and resources: brush, spade, scoop, spoon, cup, jug, bucket, sieve, cutters, rake, comb, funnel, sponge, soap, bubbles, straw, ladle, tea pot, watering can
- extend vocabulary related to imaginary play: boats, diggers, bulldozers, tractors, treasure, dinosaurs, pirates, gardens, tea party, firefighter, plumber, dolls
- use descriptive language: wet, dry, damp, gritty, hard, lumpy, flat, smooth, wavy, sticky, cold, frozen, clean, dirty
- use language related to size, shape and position
- describe capacity and quantity: enough, more, less, too much/little, overflowing, how much/many? a pile/cup of…
- describe actions or what is happening: it’s fallen down, it’s gone, flatten, pour, tip, fill, scoop, cover, stir, splash, leak, drip, float, sink, trickle, spray, wash, dry
Have you got anything else to add to these categories?
Can you think of other activities or areas of childhood development and the related language development opportunities?
Share your comments with us below.
© British Council
Study some of the verbs related to movement so you can use them during your conversation practice. 👍😃
We’ve talked about why children play and the benefits of play, but the idea still persists that if it’s too much fun, children are not learning.
However, the evidence suggests the opposite. Research shows that children actually learn through play. Play is learning.
Internationally renowned expert on early childhood and play, Tina Bruce, outlines in her book, Early Childhood Education, the 12 features of free-flow play:
1. Children use the first-hand experiencesthey have had in life during play.
2. Children keep control as they play. Play does not bow to pressure to conform to external rules, outcomes, targets or adult-led projects.
3. Play is a process. It has no products.
4. Children choose to play. It is intrinsically motivated and spontaneous.
5. Children rehearse their possible futures in their play. Play helps children learn to function in advance of what they can do in the present.
6. Play has the potential to take children into a world of pretend, beyond the here and now, in the past, present and future, and it transforms them into different characters.
7. Play can be solitary, and this sort of play can be very deep.
8. Children can play together or with an adult, in companionship (parallel play), associatively or cooperatively in pairs or groups.
9. Play can be initiated by a child or an adult, but adults need to respect the child’s play agenda by not insisting that the adult agenda dominates the play.
10. Child-led play is characterised by deep concentration.
11. In play, children try out their recent learning, mastery, competence and skills, and consolidate them.
12. Play makes children into whole people, able to keep balancing their lives in a fast-changing world.
Tina Bruce (2015) Early Childhood Education 5th Edition