Tudo o que vc precisa saber sobre gramática

Pronoun

A word which is used instead of a noun perhaps because you have already talked about the person or thing, eg I, they, which.

Verb

A word which describes an action or a state of being, eg eat, like, know.

Adverb

A word which describes or gives more information about a verb or an adjective, eg he walked quickly, she danced well.

Adjective

A word which describes something or someone, eg beautiful, happy, long.

Preposition

A word which is used with a noun or pronoun to show time, place or direction, eg at, on, in.

Conjunction

A word which connects words and phrases in a sentence, eg but, and, although.

Determiner

A word which is used before a noun to show which particular example of the noun you are referring to, eg this pencil, your shoes.

Interjection

An interjection is a word that is used to

express emotion, eg Oh no! Gosh! Ow!

Part of speech

Learners need to know what type of word (noun, verb, adjective) they are learning so that they know how to put it into a sentence.

Meaning

What idea the word shows and what contexts the word applies to.

Pronunciation

Learners need to know how to say the word, how many syllables there are and which is stressed, eg ed-u-CA-tion.

Spelling

Learners need to know how to write the word.

Connotation

Learners need to know if the word has a positive or a negative sense to it. For example, the words ‘slim’ and ‘skinny’ both mean thin but one has a positive connotation (slim) and the other (skinny) doesn’t.

Collocation

Learners need to know which words go with the word they are learning. For example, we make beds but do housework.

Word families

Learners need to know other words that are formed from the same word, for example, kind, unkind, kindness, kindly.

Register

Learners need to know if the word should be used in formal or informal situations. For example, assist and help have the same meaning but assist is more formal than help.

Syllable

A part of a word that usually contains a vowel sound, eg pen = one syllable; teacher = two syllables – teach/er; umbrella = three syllables – um/brell/a.

Connected speech

Spoken language in which the words join to form a connected stream of sounds. In connected speech some sounds in words may be left out or some sounds may be pronounced in a weak way or some words might join together, eg Is he busy? /ɪzibɪzi/.

Phoneme

The smallest sound unit which can make a difference to meaning eg /p/ in pan, /b/ in ban. Phonemes have their own symbols (phonemic symbols), each of which represents one sound.

Phonemic symbols

The characters we use which represent the different sounds or phonemes, eg /ɜː/, /tʃ/, /θ/. Words can be written in phonemic script (usually the International Phonetic Alphabet or IPA), eg /dɒktə/ = doctor.

Consonant

1 A sound in which the air is partly blocked by the lips, tongue, teeth etc., eg /θ/ in ‘thing’, /b/ in ‘boy’.

2 Any letter of the English alphabet which represents consonant sounds, eg d = /d/, c = /k/.

Diphthong

Diphthongs are vowel sounds. They are a combination of two single vowel sounds said one after the other to produce a new sound; eg /aɪ/ as in ‘my’ is pronounced by saying /æ/ and /ɪ/ together. There are eight diphthongs in English: /iə/(eg ear), /eɪ/(eg play), /ʊə/(eg tourist), /ɔɪ/(eg boy), /əʊ/ (eg go), /eə/(eg air), /aɪ/(eg life), /aʊ/ (eg now).

Vowels

1 A sound in which the air is not blocked by the tongue, lips, teeth etc., eg /i:/ (eat), /ə/ (about), /e/ (egg), /ʌ/ (fun). Movement or vibration is felt in the throat because the voice is used.

2 In the alphabet, the letters a, e, i, o, u are vowels.

Intonation

The way the level of a speaker’s voice changes to show meaning such as how they feel about something; eg the level of your voice when you are angry is different from the level of your voice when you are pleased. Intonation can be rising or falling or both.

Stress

Pronouncing part of a word (syllable) or part of a sentence louder and longer than other parts, eg VEGetable, I LOVE baNAnas. Some parts of words and sentences are stressed (those in capital letters in these examples) and some are unstressed.

Sentence stress

Sentence stress is about the way some words in a sentence are stressed and some are unstressed. The stressed words are usually the information-carrying words or content words such as nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. For example, It was a LOVely EVEning, and the TEMperature was PERfect (the parts of the words in capitals are stressed).

Word stress

Word stress is about which syllable of a word is pronounced louder and longer – eg umBRELLa /ʌmˈbrelə/.

Phonemic chart

A poster or diagram of the phonemic symbols arranged in a particular order. Below is an example of the International Phonetic Alphabet or IPA.

Source : © UCLES 2018

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Terminologia sobre Plano de Aula e Gerenciamento da aprendizagem

Segue um glossário com uma lista de termos usados na confecção de um plano de aula eficaz, necessário para uma boa aula com a interação e motivação do aluno.

Lesson aim

What the teacher wants to achieve in the lesson or in the course. The main aim is the most important aim.

Stage aim

The aim or purpose of a stage, step or short section of a lesson.

Subsidiary aim

The secondary focus of the lesson, less important than the main aim. It could be the language or skills learners use in order to achieve the main aim of the lesson, or a skill or language area which is practised while the teacher is working on achieving the main lesson aim.

Personal aim

What the teacher would like to improve in his/her teaching.

Anticipated problems and solutions

When teachers are planning a lesson, they think about what their learners might find difficult about the lesson and about how they can help them learn more effectively at certain points in the lesson.

Assumptions

When teachers think about what they believe their learners will or will not know or how they will behave in a particular lesson.

Class profile

A description of the learners and information about their learning, including their age, ability, strengths and weaknesses in language and skills.

Interaction patterns

The different ways learners and the teacher work together in class, e.g. learner to learner in pairs or groups, or teacher to learner in open class, in plenary. When teachers plan lessons, they think about interaction patterns and write them on their plan.

Language analysis

A breakdown of vocabulary and grammar covered in the lesson which provides information about the structure of the language, what it means and how it is used.

Procedures

A set of actions that describes the way to do something. Teachers write lesson plans and provide details of exactly what is going to happen in each stage of a lesson. The details of the different actions are the procedures of the lesson.

Resources

The materials or tools which teachers use in class to help learners learn.

Stage

A section of a lesson. Lessons have different stages or steps such as lead-in, presentation, practice.

Timetable fit

Teachers plan timetables which provide details of the lessons they will teach in the near future. Timetable fit is about how a lesson fits logically into the sequence of lessons in a timetable.

Timing

The likely time different activities or stages in a lesson plan should take. When teachers plan lessons, they think about how long each activity will take and they usually write this on their plan.

Differentiation

This is when teachers identify and address the different needs, interests or abilities of their learners by providing a range of activity types and using a range of approaches.

TTT

This is the commonly accepted abbreviation for teacher talk time and refers to the amount of time in a lesson that the teacher talks to the learners. It is important that TTT is helpful to the learners.

STT

This is the commonly accepted abbreviation for student talk time and refers to the amount of time in a lesson that the students talk. There needs to be a balance of TTT and STT in a language lesson.

Grading language

This is when teachers use language they know the students have already studied to ease the cognitive load. This can be done by avoiding informal, colloquial language or complex grammar structures.

Eliciting

When the teacher asks learners questions, or prompts them, to come up with ideas or language. It can be used to activate their existing knowledge of a language point in order to base new knowledge on what they already know.

Monitoring

When the teacher observes learners during an activity to check their understanding of the activity and assess their progress.

Feedback

This happens at the end of the activity cycle when the teacher gives the learners feedback on their performance by going through the answers with the class and/or finding out what they have talked about. This stage can be used for further clarification if the learners still need help with the language point.

Source: British Council

© UCLES 2018

Terminologia e Dicas sobre Reading

Segue um excelente material explicando sobre a importância das etapas do aprendizado de leitura,como coerência, coesão, fluência, etc. Feito pela British Council

Reading for gist/Skimming

Reading quickly to get a general understanding of a written text, eg reading a description of a city to find out if it sounds like somewhere you’d like to visit.

Reading for specific information/Scanning

Searching for a particular piece of information in a written text, eg reading a description of a city only to find out which country it’s in.

Reading/listening for detail

Reading or listening more carefully so that you get a full understanding of the text, eg reading a description of a city to find out everything about it.

Listening for gist

Getting a general understanding of something you hear, eg listening to the weather forecast and deciding you might need to take an umbrella when you go out.

Listening for specific information

Listening for a particular piece of information, eg listening to the weather forecast to find out what the temperature will be tomorrow.

Inferring meaning

Making guesses about what is not stated explicitly in a text, eg listening or reading a conversation and deciding that the people are brother and sister without them saying so.

Coherence

Organising ideas in a logical way when speaking or writing so that the listener or reader can follow our ideas.

Cohesion

Joining sentences together using words like and, but and because so our language flows more easily.

Interactive strategies

Strategies we use when we are speaking, eg showing you are listening to other people by saying things like, mmmm or uh-uh or oh!

Turn taking

An interactive strategy which is about knowing when you can join in a conversation and signalling when you think someone else should speak.

Fluency

For speaking; this is speaking without a lot of hesitation and too many long pauses. For writing; this means you can write without stopping for a long time to think about what to write.

Sobre Amor 💝 ❤️

It’s All About Love …

“They invented hugs to let people know you love them without saying anything.”

Bil Keane

“All you need is love. But a little chocolate now and then doesn’t hurt.”

Charles M Schulz

“The Eskimos had fifty-two names for snow because it was important to them: there ought to be as many for love.”

Margaret Atwood

“Only from the heart can you touch the sky.”

Rumi

“The law of love could be best understood and learned through little children.”

Mahatma Gandhi

“It didn’t matter how big our house was; it mattered that there was love in it.”

Peter Buffett

Q: What do you call a very small valentine?

A: A valentiny!

Source: https://www.activityvillage.co.uk/?utm_source=newsletter&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=general

Em português

É tudo sobre amor …

“Eles inventaram abraços para que as pessoas saibam que você os ama sem dizer nada”.

Bil Keane

“Tudo o que você precisa é amor. Mas um pouco de chocolate de vez em quando não dói”.

Charles M Schulz

“Os esquimós tinham cinquenta e dois nomes para a neve porque era importante para eles: deveria haver tantos para o amor”.

Margaret Atwood

“Somente do coração você pode tocar o céu”.

Rumi

“A lei do amor pode ser melhor compreendida e aprendida através de crianças pequenas”.

Mahatma Gandhi

“Não importava o tamanho da nossa casa, importava que houvesse amor nela”.

Peter Buffett

P: O que você chama de namorada muito pequena?

R: Uma namoradinha!

Fonte: https://www.activityvillage.co.uk/?utm_source=newsletter&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=general

Ano Chinês do Cachorro

Um conto para celebrar o Ano Novo Chinês

The Emperor of Ch’in Shih Huang-ti

Built a wall

From the hills to the sea.

He built it wide,

He built it stout,

To keep his subjects in

And the Tartars out.

The Emperor of Ch’in.

Meng Jiangnu, one sad day

From her own dear home

A thousand leagues away

To the wall did come.

Weary and worn

She wept and she cried:

“Where is my dear love Buried inside?”

She wept and she cried

And her tears did fall,

Till down, down tumbled

That great big wall.

Em Português

O Imperador de Ch’in Shih Huang-ti

Construí uma parede

Das colinas ao mar.

Ele o construiu de largura,

Ele o construiu forte,

Para manter seus assuntos em

E os tártaros estão fora.

O Imperador de Ch’in.

Meng Jiangnu, um dia triste

De sua própria casa querida

A mil leguas de distância

Chegou à parede.

Cansada e desgastada

Ela chorou e ela chorou:

“Onde está meu querido amor enterrado dentro?”

Ela chorou e ela chorou

E suas lágrimas caíram,

Até embaixo, caiu

Esse grande muro grande.

Alunos que se formaram em 2017

Alguns de meus queridos alunos que com esforço e dedicação terminaram mais um ano letivo. Parabéns a todos!

Ten tips for keeping your heart healthy

Coronary heart disease is the biggest killer causing many deaths each year. More than a quarter of the deaths occur in people who are younger than 75 and experts say the majority are preventable.

1. Buy a blender

The World Health Organization recommends eating a minimum of 400g of fruit and veg a day to lower the risk of serious health problems, such as heart disease. Easier said than done? By throwing some fruit in the blender and starting the day with a tasty juice or smoothie, you’ll have hit your five a day target before you’ve even left for work. And with so many great combinations to try (butternut squash, ginger and date anyone?), you’ll soon be hooked.

2. Say no to tobacco

Smoking is one of the main causes of coronary heart disease. According to the NHS, a year after giving up, your risk of a heart attack falls to about half that of a smoker. And your bank balance won’t look so bad either! Ditching the ciggies can be tricky so speak to your doctor.

3. Ditch the bus for the bike

To keep the heart healthy, it is recommended that adults aged 19-64 fit in 150 minutes of moderate aerobic activity a week. It sounds like a lot but broken down that’s 30 minutes of activity on five days of the week. If you can, running, cycling or walking to work is a great way to squeeze it in without taking time out of your day. You’ll impress your colleagues too.

4. Walk the dog

Taking the dog out for a walk is another brilliant way to get fresh air and daily exercise. Don’t have a pooch? Why not borrow a friend or neighbour’s furry friend? You’ll be doing them a favour, and you get some company while you exercise. Just don’t expect great conversation.

5. Fish Fridays

Cold water fish such as mackerel, sardines, tuna and salmon are a rich source of omega-3 fats, which can help protect against heart disease. Try swapping meat out for fish a few days of the week. Cod luck!

6. Go nuts

Walnuts, almonds, peanuts, and other nuts are packed with mono-unsaturated, heart-friendly fats, and studies show they help to lower the bad form of cholesterol. Grab a handful instead of crisps or chocolate when you feel peckish, and sprinkle them on top of salads or cereal for a tasty crunch.

No pressure, but Barry needs walkies.

7. Swap the cocktails for the mocktails

Drinking excessive amounts of alcohol causes raised blood pressure – one of the biggest risk factors for having a heart attack. All those calories can also mean weight gain, another factor in heart disease. Try cutting down on the booze if you can, avoid binging, and squeeze in a few ‘dry’ days every week. There are some great alcohol free wines on the market plus some ‘mocktails’ taste as good as the real deal. Another fun way to hit your five a day!

8. Take a deep breath

Stress is another big factor in high blood pressure so try to stay calm and stress free as much as possible. Deep, slow breathing is the simplest technique for decreasing stress and therefore one of the most effective natural remedies for high blood pressure. You can do it wherever you are and whatever you’re doing – and it’s free!

9. Go Karaoke crazy

Researchers at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, found that choristers’ heartbeats synchronised when they sang together, bringing about a calming affect that could mean resilience to cardiac arrest. Dr Björn Vickhoff, who led the study says, “Song is a form of regular, controlled breathing… It helps you relax, and there are indications that it does provide a heart benefit.” Don’t fancy joining a choir? Then go wild with some guilt free singing in the shower.

10. Aim for eight hours between the sheets

Irregular or insufficient sleep – less than six hours a night – appears to be hazardous to our heart health, increasing the risk of stroke or heart attack. Sleep-deprived people have higher blood levels of stress hormones, a key player in cardiovascular disease, and lack of sleep can also alter your metabolism, making you prone to weight gain. If you can, keep your bedroom nice and quiet, try not to eat a big meal too late at night (which can ramp up your metabolism and make it difficult for your body to wind down), and avoid caffeine late in the day.

Source: BBC Broadcasting House, Portland Place, London

Pérolas de Sabedoria

A Little of Something …

“Having somewhere to go is home. Having someone to love is family. Having both is a blessing.”

Unknown

“It didn’t matter how big our house was; it mattered that there was love in it.”

Peter Buffett

“You don’t choose your family. They are God’s gift to you, as you are to them.”

Desmond Tutu

“We must take care of our families wherever we find them.”

Elizabeth Gilbert

“Family means no one gets left behind or forgotten.”

David Ogden Stiers

editor@activityvillage.co.uk

Aprendendo Inglês na Terceira Idade

There are many benefits of studying for older learners, such as increased self-confidence, increased feelings of health and well-being, reduced feelings of isolation, and increased engagement in the community. 

Many seniors wish to study a foreign language and there is now substantial evidence that they can learn a new language effectively. My experience is that senior learners are excellent language students for a number of reasons.

Life experience

Senior students have a wealth of life experience and when they bring this to the classroom they enrich the learning experience of the whole class. Our teachers comment that older learners are excellent students to have in the classroom as they are always happy to talk about their experiences and give their opinions on a wide range of topics.

Great motivation

Senior learners do not normally need a certificate, diploma or university credit; their motivation is intrinsic. They may study for intellectual enjoyment, to socialise with their peers or because it is something they have always wanted to do. In fact, senior learners are very often more highly motivated than younger learners. Their high level of motivation is a great advantage as this has been identified as one of the most important factors in determining successful language learning. The motivation of senior learners is reflected by the fact that they rarely miss a class, participate very actively in the classroom and always do their homework.

Social element

We have discovered that there is a strong social component in seniors attending English classes. They often attend class to mix with their peers, forming very strong friendships and socialising together after the class and even in their free time.

Attitude

Our experience is that senior learners have an extremely positive attitude toward language learning and life in general. They treat both their teachers and their classmates with the utmost respect and politeness. Our teachers often comment on how kind, considerate, and hardworking senior learners are, and what a pleasure they are to teach.

So our experience is that the life experience, motivation to learn, and positive attitude of senior learners provide them with many advantages as language learners. However, there are cognitive, affective and physiological factors which can affect senior language learning. We are going to identify these factors and then look at how you can adapt your courses and practices to meet the needs of older learners.

Helping students hear

Hearing loss may have a direct impact on learning and performance for senior learners. In order to decrease the negative effects of this auditory loss, teachers should try to accommodate the aging ear in a number of ways by:

• speaking clearly and ensuring that the students can see their face and lips.

• adjusting the volume for listenings and videos.

• repeating listening texts.

• using short films and videos which aid listening comprehension as students can see the face and lips of the speakers.

• ensuring that your classrooms have little background noise.

Helping students see

Defective vision increases dramatically as people age. Visual ability is particularly important in education as it is generally accepted that approximately 80% of all learning occurs through vision. To accommodate this loss in vision, here are some steps to follow:

• Use a larger print type for printed text.

• Make sure that senior students sit as close to the board as possible.

• Write very clearly on the board.

• Ensure that classrooms have a lot of natural light and that there is direct lighting for the whiteboard.

Mobility

As people age the body tends to lose some strength, flexibility and mobility. They may also suffer from arthritis and rheumatism. These changes may make it difficult for older learners to move around the classroom. To compensate for these changes we recommend doing the following things:

• Ensure that older learners have comfortable chairs and tables.

• Allow more time for older students to do whole class communicative activities where students have to stand up and move around the classroom.

Memory

Research indicates that cognitive development, recall, and problem solving may show decline with aging. In order to overcome this cognitive decline which may make it more difficult to learn a new language, teachers can help seniors develop and maintain their cognitive ability in a number of ways:

• Integrate memory exercises into classes. Use visual and auditory mnemonic devices, examples and memory associations to help seniors rehearse and later retrieve vocabulary and expressions from long-term memory.

• Systematically repeat and recycle grammar, vocabulary and expressions.

• Encourage students to draw on their wealth of experiences and to use cognitive strategies they have used successfully in the past in their current language learning environment.

• Allow more time for students to produce language without being interrupted.

Building confidence / Reducing stress

Many older learners fear failure and are more anxious than younger learners, perhaps this is because they accept the stereotype of the older learner as a poor language learner or because of previous unsuccessful attempts to learn a foreign language. Older learners need to feel comfortable and trust the teacher and the other students before they participate fully in the language classroom. A key role of the teacher is to reduce anxiety and build trust and self-confidence in the senior learner.

Here are some of the things teachers can do to reduce stress and build self-confidence in older adult learners:

• Find out what our older learners’ motivations are for learning a language and adjust our methodology accordingly.

• Use humanistic techniques to build empathy between the teacher and students, and among the students.

• Reduce the focus on error correction to build learners’ self-confidence and to promote language production.

• Avoid timed tests which may make senior learners anxious.

• Give senior students more time to complete activities.

• Promote a friendly and relaxed atmosphere in the classroom.

My experience is that any difficulties which senior learners may experience in the language classroom can be overcome through adjustments to the learning environment and material, attention to physical, affective and cognitive factors, and the use of an effective teaching methodology which focuses on the learning process rather than academic achievement.

Kieran Donaghy is teacher at UAB Idiomes, Barcelona. He is also the creator of http://film-english.com/, an award-winning website providing free resources for teachers wishing to use video effectively in their classrooms. 

Author:

Kieran Donaghy

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Como relaxar e manter a paz interior

1. Take a nature walk.

Studies have shown that getting outside in nature improves well-being, and you can also gain perspective from spring’s visual cues. For example, in fall, the changing leaves are a reminder of impermanence—just as they change colors and fall from the trees, so will whatever is stressing you out. Be the tree and let what is temporary fall away.

2. Focus on small tasks.

Practice mindfulness as you complete the smaller things on your list—housework, paperwork, yard work. Focus fully on what you are doing right here, right now, checking in with all your senses as you do your tasks. If your thoughts wander to something bigger looming in the future, gently guide your mind back to the task at hand. By staying in the present moment, you stop giving importance and attention to your past or future worries.

3. Watch or read something silly.

Entertainment is more than an escape. Studies have shown that laughter reduces the release of stress hormones in your body. Catch a silly movie, or read the latest book from your favorite funny guy or gal.

4. Sing (really).

Studies have found that singing has a positive impact on affect and anxiety, and may even reduce depression. So turn up the music and sing along or gather some friends for karaoke—if nothing else, it will make you laugh (see tip 3).

5. Try a basic breath practice meditation.

This session from Meditation Studio teacher Elisha Goldstein invites you to do nothing but watch your breath, which eventually makes it easier for you to focus on other tasks in your everyday life (without stressing). During this practice, it’s completely OK if you find yourself thinking about other things—just stay with your breath. “If all you did was notice your mind going off when it was wandering and gently brought it back over and over again,” Goldstein says, “your time would be well-spent

Source: https://www.yogajournal.com/guided-meditation-audio/meditation-studio-5-ways-to-beat-stress-this-fall?utm_source=newsletter&utm_medium=email&utm_content=story1_title&utm_campaign=Wisdom_10022017

Em Português

1. Faça uma caminhada pela natureza.

Estudos demonstraram que ficar afastado na natureza melhora o bem-estar, e você também pode obter uma perspectiva das sugestões visuais da primavera. Por exemplo, no outono, as folhas que mudam são uma lembrança da impermanência – assim como eles mudam de cores e caem das árvores, assim como tudo o que forçá-lo a sair. Seja a árvore e deixe o que é temporário cair.

2. Concentre-se em pequenas tarefas.

Pratique a atenção plena ao completar as coisas menores na sua lista de tarefas domésticas, papelada, trabalho de quintal. Concentre-se totalmente no que você está fazendo aqui mesmo, agora mesmo, checando com todos os seus sentidos enquanto faz suas tarefas. Se seus pensamentos vagarem para algo maior que se aproxima no futuro, leve sua mente de volta à tarefa em questão. Ao permanecer no momento presente, você deixa de dar importância e atenção às suas preocupações passadas ou futuras.

3. Assista ou leia algo bobo.

O entretenimento é mais do que uma fuga. Estudos demonstraram que o riso reduz a liberação de hormônios do estresse em seu corpo. Pegue um filme bobo, ou leia o último livro de seu cara engraçado ou galão favorito.

4. Cante (realmente).

Estudos descobriram que o canto tem um impacto positivo sobre o afeto e a ansiedade e pode até reduzir a depressão. Então, aumente a música e cante ou colecione alguns amigos para karaokê – se nada mais, isso fará você rir (veja a dica 3).

5. Experimente uma meditação básica de respiração.

Esta sessão da professora de Meditação Studio, Elisha Goldstein, convida você a fazer nada além de assistir sua respiração, o que eventualmente torna mais fácil para você se concentrar em outras tarefas em sua vida cotidiana (sem estressar). Durante esta prática, é completamente bom se você se achar pensando em outras coisas – fique com a respiração. “Se tudo o que você fez foi notar sua mente desaparecendo quando estava vagando e gentilmente trouxe de volta uma e outra vez”, diz Goldstein, “seu tempo seria bem gasto

Fonte: https://www.yogajournal.com/guided-meditation-audio/meditation-studio-5-ways-to-beat-stress-this-fall?utm_source=newsletter&utm_medium=email&utm_content=story1_title&utm_campaign=Wisdom_10022017