Um Pouco de Sabedoria por Diana Princesa de Gales.

Little Bit of Wisdom …

… from Diana, Princess of Wales

“Carry out a random act of kindness with no expectation of reward, safe in the knowledge that one day someone might do the same for you.”

“Family is the most important thing in the world.”

“I think the biggest disease the world suffers from in this day and age is the disease of people feeling unloved. I know that I can give love for a minute, for half an hour, for a day, for a month, but I can give.”

“Everyone of us needs to show how much we care for each other and, in the process, care for ourselves.”

“I want my boys to have an understanding of people’s emotions, their insecurities, people’s distress, and their hopes and dreams.”

“Hugs can do great amounts of good – especially for children.”

Source: editor@activityvillage.co.uk

Em português

Um Pouco de sabedoria …

… de Diana, princesa de Gales

“Realize um ato aleatório de bondade sem expectativa de recompensa, sabendo que um dia alguém pode fazer o mesmo por você”.

“A família é a coisa mais importante do mundo”.

“Acho que a maior doença que o mundo sofre neste dia e idade é a doença das pessoas que se sentem amadas. Eu sei que posso dar amor por um minuto, por meia hora, por um dia, por um mês, mas posso dar.”

“Todos nós precisamos mostrar o quanto nos cuidamos e, no processo, nos cuidamos”.

“Eu quero que meus meninos tenham uma compreensão das emoções das pessoas, suas inseguranças, angústia das pessoas e suas esperanças e sonhos”.

“Os abraços podem fazer grandes quantidades de bem – especialmente para crianças”.

Fonte: editor@activityvillage.co.uk

Advertisements

A Influência de um Professor

A Teacher’s Influence …

Teaching is and will always be my life. I love my students – kids, teenagers or adults. On the days I am not teaching, I feel empty. It is my great happiness to see my students grow and succeed in learning English.

Paula Lyra.

“I like a teacher who gives you something to take home to think about besides homework.” 

Lily Tomlin

“If kids come to us from strong, healthy functioning families, it makes our job easier. If they do not come to us from strong, healthy, functioning families, it makes our job more important.”

Barbara Colorose

“Teaching is the greatest act of optimism.” 

Colleen Wilcox

“I am not a teacher, but an awakener.” 

Robert Frost

“Teachers can change lives with just the right mix of chalk and challenges.”

Joyce Meyer

“Let us remember: One book, one pen, one child, and one teacher can change the world.”

Malala Yousafzai

“A word of encouragement from a teacher to a child can change a life.”

John C. Maxwell

“A teacher affects eternity; he can never tell where his influence stops.”

Henry Adams

“I touch the future. I teach.”

Christa McAuliffe

Palavras de sabedoria ao redor do mundo

Words of Wisdom from Around the World …
10 proverbs from around the world.

🔷"Slippery ground does not recognise a king."
Kenyan proverb – meaning that even the most powerful people are just human.

🔶"The pillow is the best advisor."
Swedish proverb – meaning that it is always a good idea to "sleep on it" or sleep on a problem.

🔹"A frog in a well does not know the great sea."
Japanese proverb – meaning that there might be more going on than you know about. Try to look at the big picture.

🔶"If the world flooded, it wouldn't matter to the duck."
Turkish proverb – meaning that a problem for you isn't necessarily a problem for everyone.

🔷"Empty barrels make the loudest noise."
Icelandic / Indonesian proverb – meaning that the loudest people aren't always the cleverest.

🔶"When spider webs unite, they can tie up a lion."
Ethiopian proverb – meaning that teamwork can conquer even the biggest problems.

🔷"A bad ballerina blames the hem of her skirt."
Polish proverb – meaning that some people will blame anything rather than themselves for their shortcomings.

🔶"A monkey dressed in silk is still a monkey."
Spanish proverb – meaning that you can cover up what's underneath, but you won't change it.

🔷"The honey only sticks to the moustache of he who licked it."
Arabic proverb – meaning that you can't escape from a crime; evidence will follow you around.

🔶"Shrimp that fall asleep are carried away by the current."
Colombian proverb – meaning, you snooze, you lose!

Source: Activity Village

Em Português
Palavras de sabedoria de todo o mundo …
Esta semana, juntei 10 provérbios de todo o mundo. Alguns me fizeram rir e pensei que fossem divertidas para compartilhar com as crianças.

"Terra escorregadia não reconhece um rei".
Provérbio queniano – o que significa que mesmo as pessoas mais poderosas são apenas humanas.

"O travesseiro é o melhor conselheiro".
Proverbio sueco – o que significa que é sempre uma boa idéia "dormir sobre ele" ou dormir em um problema.

"Um sapo em um poço não conhece o grande mar".
Provérbio japonês – o que significa que pode haver mais acontecimentos do que você sabe. Tente olhar o quadro geral.

"Se o mundo inundasse, não seria importante para o pato".
Proverbio turco – o que significa que um problema para você não é necessariamente um problema para todos.

"Barris vazios fazem o barulho mais alto".
Provérbio islandês / indonésio – o que significa que as pessoas mais altas nem sempre são as mais inteligentes.

"Quando as telhas de aranha se unem, podem amarrar um leão".
Proverbio etíope – o que significa que o trabalho em equipe pode conquistar até mesmo os maiores problemas.

"Uma bailarina ruim culpa a bainha de sua saia".
Provérbio polonês – o que significa que algumas pessoas culparão qualquer coisa em vez de elas mesmas por suas falhas.

"Um macaco vestido de seda ainda é um macaco".
Provérbio espanhol – o que significa que você pode encobrir o que está embaixo, mas você não vai mudar isso.

"O mel só adere ao bigode daquele que o lambeu".
Provérbio árabe – o que significa que você não pode escapar de um crime; A evidência irá segui-lo ao redor.

"Os camarões que dormem são levados pela correnteza".
Provérbio colombiano – o que significa que você dorme, você perde!

Fonte: Activity Village

Terminology for Reading and Listening

img_0102-4

Reading for gist/Skimming

Reading quickly to get a general understanding of a written text, eg reading a description of a city to find out if it sounds like somewhere you’d like to visit.

Reading for specific information/Scanning

Searching for a particular piece of information in a written text, eg reading a description of a city only to find out which country it’s in.

Reading/listening for detail

Reading or listening more carefully so that you get a full understanding of the text, eg reading a description of a city to find out everything about it.

Listening for gist

Getting a general understanding of something you hear, eg listening to the weather forecast and deciding you might need to take an umbrella when you go out.

Listening for specific information

Listening for a particular piece of information, eg listening to the weather forecast to find out what the temperature will be tomorrow.

Inferring meaning

Making guesses about what is not stated explicitly in a text, eg listening or reading a conversation and deciding that the people are brother and sister without them saying so.

Coherence

Organising ideas in a logical way when speaking or writing so that the listener or reader can follow our ideas.

Cohesion

Joining sentences together using words like and, but and because so our language flows more easily.

Interactive strategies

Strategies we use when we are speaking, eg showing you are listening to other people by saying things like, mmmm or uh-uh or oh!

Turn taking

An interactive strategy which is about knowing when you can join in a conversation and signalling when you think someone else should speak.

Fluency

For speaking; this is speaking without a lot of hesitation and too many long pauses. For writing; this means you can write without stopping for a long time to think about what to write.

How young children learn English as another language

Introduction

Young children are natural language acquirers; they are self-motivated to pick up language without conscious learning, unlike adolescents and adults. They have the ability to imitate pronunciation and work out the rules for themselves. Any idea that learning to talk in English is difficult does not occur to them unless it’s suggested by adults, who themselves probably learned English academically at a later age through grammar-based text books.

Read the notes below about young children learning English as another language. You can also download these notes as a booklet. Right-click on the link below to download the booklet to your computer. You may print this booklet.

The advantages of beginning early

  • Young children are still using their individual, innate language-learning strategies to acquire their home language and soon find they can also use these strategies to pick up English.
  • Young children have time to learn through play-like activities. They pick up language by taking part in an activity shared with an adult. They firstly make sense of the activity and then get meaning from the adult’s shared language.
  • Young children have more time to fit English into the daily programme. School programmes tend to be informal and children’s minds are not yet cluttered with facts to be stored and tested. They may have little or no homework and are less stressed by having to achieve set standards.
  • Children who have the opportunity to pick up a second language while they are still young appear to use the same innate language-learning strategies throughout life when learning other languages. Picking up third, fourth, or even more languages is easier than picking up a second.
  • Young children who acquire language rather than consciously learn it, as older children and adults have to, are more likely to have better pronunciation and feel for the language and culture. When monolingual children reach puberty and become more self-conscious, their ability to pick up language diminishes and they feel they have to consciously study English through grammar-based programmes. The age at which this change occurs depends greatly on the individual child’s developmental levels as well as the expectations of their society.

Stages in picking up English

Spoken language comes naturally before reading and writing.

Silent period
When babies learn their home language, there is a ‘silent period’, when they look and listen and communicate through facial expression or gestures before they begin to speak. When young children learn English, there may be a similar ‘silent period’ when communication and understanding may take place before they actually speak any English words.

During this time parents should not force children to take part in spoken dialogue by making them repeat words. Spoken dialogues should be one-sided, the adult’s talk providing useful opportunities for the child to pick up language. Where the adult uses parentese (an adjusted form of speech) to facilitate learning, the child may use many of the same strategies they used in learning their home language.

Beginning to talk
After some time, depending on the frequency of English sessions, each child (girls often more quickly than boys) begins to say single words (‘cat’, ‘house’) or ready-made short phrases (‘What’s that?’, ‘It’s my book’, ‘I can’t’, ‘That’s a car’, ‘Time to go home’) in dialogues or as unexpected statements. The child has memorised them, imitating the pronunciation exactly without realising that some may consist of more than one word. This stage continues for some time as they child picks up more language using it as a short cut to dialogue before they are ready to create their own phrases.

Building up English language
Gradually children build up phrases consisting of a single memorised word to which they add words from their vocabulary (‘a dog’, ‘a brown dog’, ‘a brown and black dog’) or a single memorised language to which they add their own input (‘That’s my chair’, ‘Time to play’). Depending on the frequency of exposure to English and the quality of experience, children gradually begin to create whole sentences.

Understanding

Understanding is always greater than speaking and young children’s ability to comprehend should not be underestimated, as they are used to understanding their home language from a variety of context clues. Though they may not understand everything they hear in their home language, children grasp the gist – that is they understand a few important words and decipher the rest using different clues to interpret the meaning. With encouragement they soon transfer their ‘gist’ understanding skills to interpret meaning in English.

Frustration

After the initial novelty of English sessions, some young children become frustrated by their inability to express their thoughts in English. Others want to speak quickly in English as they can in their home language. Frustration can often be overcome by providing children with ‘performance’ pieces like ‘I can count to 12 in English’ or very simple rhymes, which consist of ready-made phrases.

Mistakes

Children should not be told they have made a mistake because any correction immediately demotivates. Mistakes may be part of the process of working out grammar rules of English or they may be a fault in pronunciation. ‘I goed’ soon becomes ‘went’ if the child hears the adult repeat back ‘yes, you went’; or if the adult hears ‘zee bus’ and repeats ‘the bus’. As in learning their home language, if children have an opportunity to hear the adult repeat the same piece of language correctly, they will self-correct in their own time.

Gender differences

Boys’ brains develop differently from girls’ and this affects how boys pick up language and use it. Sometimes mixed classes make little provision for boys, who may be overshadowed by girls’ natural ability to use language. If young boys are to reach their potential, they need some different language experiences with girls and their achievements should not be compared with those of girls.

Language-learning environments

Young children find it more difficult to pick up English if they are not provided with the right type of experiences, accompanied by adult support using ‘parentese’ techniques.

  • Young children need to feel secure and know that there is some obvious reason for using English.
  • Activities need to be linked to some interesting everyday activities about which they already know, eg sharing an English picture book, saying a rhyme in English, having an ‘English’ snack.
  • Activities are accompanied by adult language giving a running commentary about what is going on and dialogues using adjusted parentese language.
  • English sessions are fun and interesting, concentrating on concepts children have already understood in their home language. In this way children are not learning two things, a new concept as well as new language, but merely learning the English to talk about something they already know.
  • Activities are backed up by specific objects, where possible, as this helps understanding and increases general interest.

Reading

Children who can already read in their home language generally want to find out how to read in English. They already know how to decode words in their home language to get meaning from text and, if not helped to decode in English, may transfer their home language-decoding techniques and end up reading English with the home language accent.

Before they can decode English, young children need to know the 26 alphabet letter names and sounds. As English has 26 letters but on average 44 sounds (in standard English), introducing the remaining sounds is better left until children have more experience in using language and reading,

Beginning reading in English goes easily if young children already know the language they are trying to read. Many children work out by themselves how to read in English if they have shared picture books with adults or learned rhymes, as they are likely to have memorised the language. Reading what they know by heart is an important step in learning to read as it gives children opportunities to work out how to decode simple words by themselves. Once children have built up a bank of words they can read, they feel confident and are then ready for a more structured approach.

http://learnenglishkids.britishcouncil.org/en/parents/articles/how-young-children-learn-english-another-language

Nunca é tarde para aprender a falar Inglês!

A revista Veja publicou um artigo interessante sobre este tema. Era a história de capa e muitos dos meus alunos compraram a revista influenciados pelo artigo. Como esta é a minha área de especialização, corri para ler a história, também.

Infelizmente, o que a maioria dos adultos acha que é que eles passaram da idade adequada e que não serão capazes de aprender a falar Inglês. Já ouvi frases como “papagaio velho não aprende a falar” ou “Eu tenho muito vocabulário, mas eu não sei formar frases” ou “Eu fico muito nervoso e me dá um branco.”  Atualmente tenho alunos de 60, 70 anos que têm um excelente desempenho e muita satisfação com o aprendizado!

Qualquer aprendizagem é mais difícil ao longo dos anos, mas isso não pode ser motivo de desistência. É comum nos justificarmos com desculpas de falta de tempo, dinheiro, transporte,  inibição e não ter a coragem de arregaçar as mangas para superar os obstáculos.

Em termos de educação, pesquisas colocam o Brasil no fim da linha entre países com conhecimentos de Inglês. Isso é deprimente, especialmente se pensarmos em todos os eventos mundiais que ocorrem no Brasil e que envolvem conhecimentos de Inglês.

Quando temos sucesso ao fazer alguma coisa, o sentimento de vitória por superarmos as dificuldades é imenso! Especialmente quando você cresce em sua profissão devido à aprendizagem de línguas.

Algumas pessoas já sofreram humilhação ao falar Inglês e usar uma palavra ou frase erroneamente e acabaram envolvidas em grande dificuldade ou constrangimento. Eu sei de alguns casos de pessoas no exterior que passaram por situações tão embaraçosas que se tornaram cômicas.

Todas essas experiências bizarras durante viagens internacionais, entrevistas de emprego, ou reuniões são válidas e fazem parte do processo de desenvolvimento da aprendizagem de uma nova língua. O aluno tem que seguir em frente, não se sentir desanimado, ele deve saber que tudo isso faz parte do processo de aquisição da linguagem e que essas situações estranhas são importantes para a fixação do conteúdo.

Então, meu amigo que está aprendendo Inglês depois de adulto, parabéns! Não tenha vergonha de cometer erros, falar sem a certeza das palavras, ficar tenso, ou errar na concordância. Vá em frente, porque é só assim para aprender uma nova língua. E para aqueles que, ainda têm medo de tentar, de dar o primeiro passo, é mais fácil do que você pensa!

Paula Lyra e Alves

dscn04171.jpg

In English

It´s Never too late to learn to speak English

The Veja Magazine published an interesting article on this topic. It was the cover story and many of my students bought the magazine influenced by the article. Once this is my area of expertise, I rushed to read the story, too.

Unfortunatelly, what most adults think is that they have passed the appropriate age and that they will no longer be able to learn to speak English. I’ve heard phrases like “old parrot does not learn to talk” or “I have much vocabulary, but I don´t form sentences” or “I get too nervous and forget everything.” Currently I have some students with 60 and 70 years old who have excellent performance and are very happy with their outcome!

Any learning is more difficult over the years, but this may not be cause for discontinuance. It is very common to justify ourselves with excuses of lack of time, money, transport, inhibition and thereby avoid having the courage to roll up the sleeves and overcome barriers.

In terms of Education, researches put Brazil at the end of the line between countries with knowledge of English Language. This is depressing, especially if we think of all the world events that occur in Brazil involving the knowledge of English.

When succeding to do something, the feeling of victory for those who managed to overcome the difficulties is immense. Especially when you grow up in your profession due to language learning.

Some people have suffered humiliation when speaking English after using a word or phrase and mistakenly ended up involved in great difficulty or embarrassment. I know of some cases of people abroad who have been through such embarrassing situations that have become comical.

All these bizarre experiences during international travels, job interviews, or meetings are valid and are part of the development process of learning a new language. The learner has to move on, do not feel dejected, he should know that it’s all part of the process of language acquisition and that these strange situations are relevant to the fixing of the content.

So my friend who is learning English as an adult, congratulations! Do not be shy about making mistakes! Talk even without the certainty of words, tenses, or of concordance. Go ahead, because it’s just so that you learn a new language. And for those of you who are still afraid to try, take the first step. It’s easier than you think!

Paula Lyra e Alves

Erros comuns que se deve evitar ao aprender Inglês

Você acha que só ir à aula vai te ensinar a falar Inglês?

O professor apenas apresenta o material, cabe ao aluno internalizar depois o que foi aprendido. O tempo de aula não é suficiente para fazer a memorização e fixação do conteúdo aprendido e nem para começar uma prática suficiente. Os alunos devem estudar e praticar fora da sala de aula, para se tornar bem sucedidos. Vejam alguns erros e tente evitá-los.

1- Quero ver coisas interessantes!

O professor e o livro didático são apenas o ponto de partida, não o fim para tudo. Não se limite a isso, procure coisas que te interessem em Inglês como: músicas, filmes, programas de TV, livros, jornais, vídeos virais, anúncios engraçados, blogs, fóruns, desenhos animados, histórias em quadrinhos, jogos, receitas e sites de perguntas e respostas. Consulte traduções no início, mas depois fuja delas!

2- Tem muita coisa diferente e complicada!

Haverá muitas de coisas que funcionam de forma diferente em Inglês do que em Português. Algumas delas podem parecer (ou ser) ilógicas. Ao invés de ficar com raiva, frustrado, ansioso; sinta-se feliz por poder explorar essa nova maneira de se expressar.

3- Nunca tenho tempo para estudar!

A aprendizagem de línguas não tem que ser extenuante! Você pode conseguir bons resultados com aulas de 2 vezes por semana e se comprometendo a estudar em casa e fazer suas tarefas.  Desenvolvendo um ritmo de estudo frequente, você estará treinando e mantendo sua prática constantemente.

3- Odeio aprender Gramática!

Na verdade, aprender gramática raramente é alegre, mas isso não deve ser algo aterrorizador! Não tem como se desenvolver conversação sem saber usar verbos, pronomes, estruturas. Um estado de espírito positivo vai ajudar muito e tornar os estudos memoráveis. Não hesite em trocar de livros textos ou utilizar múltiplas fontes ao mesmo tempo. Use materiais autênticos sempre que puder.

4- Encontro desculpas para não usar a língua, ao invés de motivos para usá-la.

Há diversas razões para não usar o idioma que você está aprendendo. Talvez o seu nível linguístico ainda esteja muito baixo. Talvez você não conheça nenhum falante nativo nas proximidades. Talvez você nem pretenda viajar ao exterior. Estas são todas boas razões mesmo, mas não devem te impedir de alcançar seu objetivo. Não busque desculpas, mas vise soluções e estratégias.

Seguem algumas boas dicas para te ajudar:

  • Cumprimente seus amigos em Inglês da próxima vez que você vê-los. Não importa se eles não entendem você pode ensinar;
  • Convença sua família que os filmes de Hollywood são mais bem apreciados no original inglês;
  • Se tiver que pesquisar por algo, use a Wikipédia em inglês a fim de obter uma perspectiva internacional;
  • Planeje um final de semana só falando em inglês, assistindo filmes. Convide amigos;
  • Invente razões para falar com estrangeiros que você vê em torno da cidade, dar lhes boas-vindas ou trocar informações sobre lugares favoritos;
  • Escreva as 10 razões para estudar o idioma e pendure em local visível;
  • Use a linguagem.

Mantenha seu propósito firme e bons estudos! dscn04171.jpg

Fonte: http://time.com/3628605/avoid-mistakes-foreign-language/

Dez Mandamentos para Motivar o Aprendizado de Línguas

Segue boa leitura para profissionais que trabalham com o ensino de idioma.

O restante da matéria pode ser encontrado no link abaixo.
1 Criar um exemplo pessoal com o seu próprio comportamento
2- Desenvolver um bom relacionamento com os alunos
3- Aumentar auto-confiança linguística dos alunos
4- Preparar as aulas interessante
5- Promover a autonomia do aluno
6- Personalizar o processo de ensino
7- Aumentar o direcionamento de metas dos alunos
8- Familiarizar os alunos sobre a cultura do idioma
9- Criar um ambiente descontraído e agradável na sala de aula
10- Apresentar as tarefas de forma adequada

Anuncio Paula Lyra ELT School

In English

Good article for professionals working with the language of instruction.

The rest of it can be found on the link below.

‘Ten commandments for motivating language learners’:
1 Set a personal example with your own behaviour
2- Develop a good relationship with the learners
3- Increase the learners’ linguistic self-confidence
4- Make the language classes interesting
5- Promote learner autonomy
6- Personalise the learning process
7- Increase the learners’ goal-orientedness
8- Familiarize learners with the target culture
9- Create a pleasant relaxed atmosphere in the classroom
10- Present the tasks properly

http://oupeltglobalblog.com/2011/05/06/10-commandments-for-motivating-language-learners/