If Clauses – 0,1,2,3


Conditionals are complex sentences which use the subordinator if.

There are four main types of conditionals and they differ depending on the time (past, present or future) and on how likely the event or state is.

Look at the following examples. What is the structure of each type? What type of event does each type discuss?

Zero conditional

If a student fails the course, they do not progress to the next level.

First conditional

If the book is returned late, you will receive a fine.

Second conditional

If I had more time, I would edit my essay again.

Third conditional

If the student hadn’t handed the essay in late, he wouldn’t have failed.

How did you go? Let’s see how can you make each type of conditional.

Note: The if clause can be the first clause in the sentence or the second clause.


1 – The speaker stated that if she solve one environmental problem it would be global warming.

2 – The speaker claimed that if the changes been made, the number of people failing the course would have increased.

3 – If you require an extension, you should speak to your lecturer.

4 – If your grades do not improve, you will have to get a tutor.

Source: https://www.futurelearn.com/courses/