O Poder dos Testes

Vivemos em um mundo onde as pessoas têm opiniões diferentes sobre a sociedade. Isto é especialmente verdadeiro quando se trata de entender onde está o poder e quem o exerce.

Leia os dois extratos seguintes dos livros que abordam a questão do uso social e político dos testes de linguagem.

Extrato 1. De Elana Shohamy (2000). O poder dos testes. Longman: Harlow, pp. 15-17.

“Os usos dos resultados dos testes têm efeitos prejudiciais para os participantes, já que tais usos podem criar vencedores e perdedores, sucessos e fracassos, rejeições e aceitações. As pontuações dos testes são muitas vezes os únicos indicadores para colocar pessoas em níveis de classe, para conceder certificados e prêmios, para determinar se uma pessoa será autorizada a continuar em estudos futuros, para decidir sobre uma profissão, para participar de aulas de educação especial, para participar de honra. aulas, para ser aceito no ensino superior e para obter empregos … Os testes são usados como um método de impor certos comportamentos sobre aqueles que estão sujeitos a eles. Os testes são capazes de ditar aos participantes o que eles precisam saber, o que aprenderão e o que aprenderão. Os candidatos estão dispostos a fazê-lo, a fim de maximizar suas pontuações, tendo em conta os efeitos prejudiciais que os resultados podem ter sobre suas vidas ”

Extrato 2: Glenn Fulcher (2015). Reexaminar os testes de linguagem: uma pesquisa filosófica e social. Londres e Nova York: Routledge, p. 155.

“Embora testes e avaliações pressupor desigualdade, é uma desigualdade de resultados, não de oportunidades. Kariya e Dore (2006) fazem uma distinção entre os ‘igualitaristas comunais’ revolucionários que distribuem a renda, o prestígio e o poder igualmente entre todos os membros da sociedade, e ‘igualitaristas meritocráticos que estão interessados principalmente na igualdade de oportunidades para competir por resultados que possam ser Embora o qualificador “vastamente” possa ser questionável em uma democracia moderna, é o que hoje chamamos de igualitarismo meritocrático que motivou a compreensão vitoriana da igualdade. Significava a remoção do privilégio, a provisão de tal educação que levaria ao sufrágio universal e oportunidade para todos na sala de exame, sujeita ao impacto inevitável do background socioeconômico (como a capacidade de pagar por aulas particulares). Em suma, essas foram as características críticas de uma sociedade democrática, e o teste é uma parte essencial do mecanismo que faz com que funcione. ”(Fulcher, 2015, p. 155).

In English

The power of tests

We live in a world where people hold different views about society. This is especially true when it comes to understanding where power lies and who exercises it.

Read the following two extracts from books that address the question of the social and political use of language tests.

Extract 1. From Elana Shohamy (2000). The Power of Tests. Longman: Harlow, pp. 15 – 17.

“The uses of test results have detrimental effects for test takers since such uses can create winners and losers, successes and failures, rejections and acceptances. Test scores are often the sole indicators for placing people in class levels, for granting certificates and prizes, for determing whether a person will be allowed to continue in future studies, for deciding on a profession, for entering special education classes, for participating in honour classes, for getting accepted into higher education and for obtaining jobs….Tests are used as a method of imposing certain behaviours on those who are subject to them. Tests are capable of dictating to test takers what they need to know, what they will learn and what they will be taught. Test takers are willing to do so in order to maximize their scores, given the detrimental effects the results may have on their lives”

Extract 2: Glenn Fulcher (2015). Re-examining Language Testing: A Philosophical and Social Inquiry. London & New York: Routledge, p. 155.

“Although testing and assessment presupposes inequality, it is an inequality of outcomes, not of opportunities. Kariya and Dore (2006) make a distinction between the revolutionary ‘communal egalitarians’ who would distribute income, prestige and power equally among all members of society, and ‘meritocratic egalitarians who are interested primarily in equality of opportunity to compete for outcomes that may be vastly unequal.’ While the qualifier ‘vastly’ may be objectionable in a modern democracy, it is nevertheless what we now call meritocratic egalitarianism that motivated the Victorian understanding of equality. It meant the removal of privilege, the provision of such education as would lead to universal suffrage and opportunity for all in the examination hall, subject to the inevitable impact of socioeconomic background (such as the ability to pay for private tuition). In short, these were the critical features of a democratic society, and testing is an essential part of the mechanism that makes it work.” (Fulcher, 2015, p. 155).

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Inglês será sempre a língua Global?

Global business speaks English

Segue excelente matéria. Não deixe de conferir.

With the continuing globalisation of trade and commerce, many organisations, from great multinationals to small companies do business around the world and need to communicate with clients and competitors, many of whom may have a different first language. Very often, the language adopted as a common language or lingua franca is English.

As a recent article in the Harvard Business Review puts it, ‘Global Business Speaks English’.

This is an additional video, hosted on YouTube.

The video is also available here if you are unable to access YouTube.

Reflection – the role of English in global business

Do you agree with Dr Tsedal Neeley about the role of English in global business? Are there any negative implications of adopting English as a company lingua franca?

What do you understand by the terms ‘dial up’ and ‘dial down’ in relation to language use? Do you agree that native speakers need to ‘dial down’ and non-native speakers need to ‘dial up’? If so, how would they do this?

Por quê ensinar Fonética é importante?

Why is phonics important?

Phonics is important in learning to read and write. Research supports the view that phonics is a key predictor of later reading success.

English is a phonetic language, which means we have a sound that is matched by a written letter or combination of written letters.

The letter b and the sound b represented by the insect beeMatching sounds to letters © QUT English is the most complex alphabetic language to learn because it is irregular – there can be many options for combining letters to create a specific sound, or combining sounds to make up a word. However, there are parts of the English language that do follow rules and it’s important that children understand these rules to be successful decoders.

Learning to read is complex and phonics is just one part of code-related literacy development and becoming literate.

Building blocks with reading comprehension at apex; concepts related to oral language on one side and concepts related to printed language on the other side.Building blocks of literacy. Adapted from The Melissa Institute. © QUT Learning to read also involves developing strategies in all of the blocks in the image above, as well as discovering the pleasure of reading and reading for a purpose.

Oral language and phonological awareness play a key role in early childhood literacy development. Phonics knowledge is finite and can be learnt quickly, whereas comprehension and vocabulary knowledge continues to develop over a lifetime. This makes phonics learning easier to measure than comprehension and vocabulary development.

Over the past 50 years, academics, policymakers and education leaders have argued over whether we should, or should not, teach phonics. Rather than arguing whether phonics is necessary, research has shifted from ‘should we or shouldn’t we’ teach phonics, to what form of phonics should be taught, when, and how much.

There are a range of different ways you can teach phonics in your early years setting. The ‘best’ way to teach phonics is through teachers using their informed professional judgment about what’s needed for the children they’re teaching.

What is phonics?

Phonics is understanding the structure of oral language and its representation in written language. It’s a method for teaching children to read by helping them to connect sounds with letters or groups of letters. Phonics is just one part of learning to read.

Explaining phonemes

Phonemes are the smallest units of sound in oral language. The relationship between phonemes and letters is known as phoneme-grapheme correspondence – more commonly known as phonics.

Explaining phonological awareness

Phonological awareness is the ability to detect and manipulate the larger units of sound; for example, rhyme and syllables. Phonological awareness is important for children in the prior-to-school years. Research suggests it is easier to attend to larger units of sound, such as rhymes and counting syllables, than it is to attend to the smaller units of sound as in phonemic awareness.

Modais

Os verbos modais têm diferentes possibilidades. Não são fáceis de serem usados, pois necessitamos ter um entendimento desta possibilidade.

Eles podem variar de acordo com o tempo verbal ou a ênfase que se quer dar.

Por exemplo: habilidade, obrigação, permissão, sugestão, conselho, previsão, promessa, pedido, possibilidade ou decisão.

Veja alguns exemplos na imagem e entenda melhor sobre eles.

Advinhações

Riddles:

1. What five-letter word becomes shorter when you add two letters to it?

2. What type of cheese is made backwards?

3. What gets wetter as it dries?

4. What has to be broken before you can use it?

5. Why can’t a man living in London be buried in Manchester?

6. How many letters are there in the English alphabet?

7. Which month has 28 days?

8. What two things can you never eat for breakfast?

9. Seven frogs are sitting on a log. One of them decides to jump off of the log. How many frogs are on the log?

10. Everybody has me and nobody can lose me. What am I?

Answers:

1. Short

2. Edam

3. A towel

4. An egg

5. Because he is still living!

6. There are 18: 3 in ‘the’, 7 in ‘English’ and 8 in ‘alphabet’.

7. All of them of course!

8. Lunch and dinner!

9. Still seven. He decided but he hasn’t jumped yet.

10. A shadow.

Source: http://www.activityvillage.co.uk/

Diferenças entre aprender Inglês online ou presencial

Seguem nos dois idiomas ( inglês e português) algumas explicações sobre como as habilidades são ensinadas durante uma aula on-line.

Aulas de habilidades receptivas e produtivas on-line e presencial são semelhantes em muitos aspectos, mas o uso da tecnologia significa que existem algumas diferenças.

Ensinar inglês on-line exige que o professor ouça e observe os alunos o tempo todo, monitore seu idioma, dê feedback, incentive a participação e o engajamento, assim como os professores fazem na sala de aula presencial.

Ensinar a ler online pode ser tão eficaz quanto ensiná-lo presencial e pode ser integrado a outras habilidades. Os livros de capa dura e folhetos de papel são substituídos por suas versões digitais. Existem muitos livros e sites digitais que os professores podem extrair texto ou uma história e compartilhar com seus alunos on-line.

Ensinar a ouvir, embora seja uma habilidade mais receptiva, pode ser integrado à habilidade produtiva de falar. É importante usar o equipamento certo. Os professores precisam garantir que os alunos possam ouvir. Todas as tarefas de escuta podem ser perfeitamente realizadas on-line, como tarefas de pré-escuta, assistir a um vídeo ou ouvir um arquivo de áudio, tarefas de pós-escuta, técnicas de decodificação (com a ajuda do quadro branco, caixa de bate-papo ou compartilhando recursos na tela ). O áudio pode ser rebobinado quantas vezes forem necessárias.

Ensinar a escrever em uma sala de aula presencial é geralmente ignorado porque pode ser percebido como demorado e geralmente visto como tarefa de lição de casa sem muita reflexão – mas não deveria ser! Ensinar a escrever online pode ser uma experiência divertida e agradável, desde que os professores estejam cientes das ferramentas disponíveis e deixem a sua criatividade brilhar. Escrever é um processo que envolve pensar, debater idéias, polir, pensar sobre a estrutura, conectar idéias, revisar e assim por diante.

In English

Receptive and productive skills lessons online and face-to-face are similar in many ways, but the use of technology does mean there are some differences.

Teaching English online requires the teacher to listen and watch the students all the time, monitor their language, give feedback, encourage participation and engagement just as teachers do in the face-to-face classroom.

Teaching reading online can be as effective as teaching it face-to-face and it can be integrated with other skills. The hardcover books and paper handouts are replaced by their digital versions. There are many digital books and websites that teachers can extract text or a story from and share with their online students.

Teaching listening, though a more receptive skill, can be integrated with the productive speaking skill. It’s important to use the right equipment . Teachers need to ensure the students can listen. All listening tasks can be perfectly conducted online, such as pre-listening tasks, watching a video or listening to an audio file, post-listening tasks, decoding techniques (with the help of the whiteboard, chat box or by sharing resources on the screen). The audio can be rewound as many times as needed.

Teaching writing in a face-to-face classroom is usually overlooked because it may be perceived as time-consuming and it’s generally seen as a homework task without much thought – but it shouldn’t be! Teaching writing online can be a fun and enjoyable experience as long as teachers are aware of the tools available and let their creativity spark. Writing is a process that involves thinking, brainstorming ideas, polishing them, thinking about the structure, connecting ideas, proofreading and so on.

Source:

https://ugc.futurelearn.com/uploads/files/cf/4a/cf4a5933-6403-43b7-aa1b-581b345e6365/Teaching_Skills_Online_Final.pdf

Dia 8 é Dia Mundial dos Oceanos

Vamos proteger e respeitar nossos oceanos e as inúmeras vidas que lá habitam. ( in English below)

Sem água, sem vida. Não azul, não verde “.

Sylvia Earle, Oceanógrafa

“Muitos de nós perguntam o que eu, como uma pessoa, posso fazer, mas a história nos mostra que tudo de bom e ruim começa porque alguém faz alguma coisa ou não faz alguma coisa.”

Sylvia Earle, Oceanógrafa

“Devemos isso aos nossos filhos, serem melhores cuidadores do meio ambiente. A alternativa? – um mundo sem baleias. É terrível demais para se imaginar.”

Pierce Brosnan

“Sabemos que quando protegemos nossos oceanos, protegemos nosso futuro”.

Presidente Bill Clinton

Cristiano Ronaldo atua na Activity Village

In English

No water, no life. No blue, no green.”

Sylvia Earle, Oceanographer

“Many of us ask what can I, as one person, do, but history shows us that everything good and bad starts because somebody does something or does not do something.”

Sylvia Earle, Oceanographer

“We owe it to our children to be better stewards of the environment. The alternative? – a world without whales. It’s too terrible to imagine.”

Pierce Brosnan

“We know that when we protect our oceans we’re protecting our future.”

President Bill Clinton

Cristiano Ronaldo activies at Activity Village

Copa do Mundo

Palavras de sabedoria dos jogadores de futebol

“Você não pode marcar um gol se não der um chute.”

Johan Cruyff

“Marcar gols é uma ótima sensação, mas o mais importante para mim é que o time tenha sucesso – não importa quem marca os gols, desde que ganhemos.”

Christiano Ronaldo

“Os verdadeiros heróis são feitos de trabalho duro e integridade.”

Hope Solo (goleira feminina dos EUA)

“Eu não preciso do melhor penteado ou do melhor corpo, apenas me dê uma bola aos meus pés e mostrarei o que posso fazer.”

Lionel Messi

“Trabalhe duro para ficar bom, então trabalhe mais para melhorar.”

José Mourinho

“O futebol é um jogo simples. Vinte e dois homens (ou mulheres) perseguem uma bola por 90 minutos e, no final, os alemães sempre vencem.”

Gary Linekar

“O segredo é acreditar em seus sonhos; em seu potencial de ser como sua estrela, continue procurando, acredite e não perca a fé em si mesmo.”

Neymar

In English

Footballers’ Words of Wisdom …

“You can’t score a goal if you don’t take a shot.”

Johan Cruyff

“Scoring goals is a great feeling, but the most important thing to me is that the team is successful – it doesn’t matter who scores the goals as long as we’re winning.”

Christiano Ronaldo

“True heroes are made of hard work and integrity.”

Hope Solo (US female goalkeeper)

“I don’t need the best hairstyle or the best body, just give me a ball at my feet and I’ll show you what I can do.”

Lionel Messi

“Work hard to get good, then work harder to get better.”

Jose Mourinho

“Football is a simple game .Twenty-two men (or women) chase a ball for 90 minutes and at the end, the Germans always win.”

Gary Linekar

“The secret is to believe in your dreams; in your potential that you can be like your star, keep searching, keep believing and don’t lose faith in yourself.”

Neymar