They are small elements that we insert in the beginning or at the end of a base word
Aprender em um segundo idioma pode ser desafiador, mas como o professor pode fazer uma grande diferença. Veja um resumo das principais ideias.
1- A linguagem é mais do que vocabulário, gramática e ortografia. É moldado por discursos, convenções de gênero e contexto.
2- Os estudantes precisam controlar tanto o registro interpessoal cotidiano quanto o registro acadêmico mais formal para obter sucesso na escola.
3- Os alunos de idiomas virão de várias circunstâncias com uma variedade de recursos, por isso, não faça suposições sobre suas necessidades.
4- Não o deixe em osmose – planeje o aprendizado de idiomas, bem como o aprendizado do currículo.
5- Mantenha o foco em fazer sentido, não em correção.
Incentivar a repetição, reciclagem e redundância.
Use recursos visuais e gestos para apoiar os alunos de idiomas.
6- Em seus recursos de conversação e sala de aula, busque “mais compreensibilidatde”.
7- Receba as primeiras línguas dos seus alunos na sala de aula.
8- Planeje diferentes espaços e atividades para diferentes tipos de conversa.
9- Dê aos alunos de idiomas um pouco mais de tempo de espera.
10- Entenda as demandas específicas de idioma da sua área de currículo.
11- Construa o ciclo de gênero em seu planejamento de aula.
12- Deixe os alunos entrarem no mundo das convenções de gênero.
13- Use o feedback sobre o trabalho dos alunos como uma oportunidade para o aprendizado de idiomas.
15- Observe como os alunos de sua língua estão progredindo e planeje o próximo estágio.
© Universidade de Glasgow
Learning in a second language can be challenging, but a language-aware teacher can make a big difference. Here’s a summary of the main ideas.
- Language is more than vocabulary, grammar and spelling. It is shaped by discourses, genre conventions and context.
- Students need control of both the everyday interpersonal register and the more formal academic register to succeed in school.
- Language learners will come from a variety of circumstances with a variety of resources, so don’t make assumptions about their needs.
- Don’t leave it to osmosis – plan for language learning as well as curriculum learning.
- Keep the focus on making meaning, not on correctness.
- Encourage repetition, recycling and redundancy.
- Use visuals and gestures to support language learners.
- In your talk and classroom resources, aim for ‘comprehensibility plus’.
- Welcome your students’ first languages into the classroom.
- Plan different spaces and activities for different types of talk.
- Give language learners a bit more wait time.
- Understand the particular language demands of your curriculum area.
- Build the genre cycle into your lesson planning.
- Let students into the secrets of genre conventions.
- Use feedback on students’ work as an opportunity for language learning.
- Observe how your language learners are progressing, and plan for the next stage.
© University of Glasgow
Frases ou dizeres para nos levar a pensar.
“A ship is safe in harbor, but that’s not what ships are for.”
John A. Shedd
“Courage is found in unlikely places.”
“You may not always have a comfortable life and you will not always be able to solve all of the world’s problems at once but don’t ever underestimate the importance you can have because history has shown us that courage can be contagious and hope can take on a life of its own.”
“Courage is what it takes to stand up and speak; courage is also what it takes to sit down and listen.”
“Since it is so likely that children will meet cruel enemies let them at least have heard of brave knights and heroic courage.”
“Never bend your head. Always hold it high. Look the world straight in the eye.”
“Courage does not always roar. Sometimes courage is the quiet voice at the end of the day saying, ‘I will try again tomorrow.”
Mary Anne Radmacher
Palavras que te ajudam na hora de comprar em shoppings ou butiques.
- Children can really learn a language if they are playing.
- Never force a child to speak, they will when they are ready.
- Children learn best when they are interested in something.
- Children pick up languages best if there is a context and reason to use it.
Young children learn through their senses with a trial and error approach. While gradually learning boundaries and expectations is important, it is totally normal for very young children not to behave in the way that an adult expects. By observing children and really tuning into their interests, we can plan activities and experiences that are age-appropriate and engaging. When children are engaged in motivating and meaningful activities, their ‘behaviour’ is less of an issue.
When we assess a young child, we are asking ourselves “What do my observations tell me about this child?”Assessment is about analysing our observations and understanding the potential of each child.
When a child learns something new or develops a new skill, we often call this a ‘magic’ or a ‘wow’ moment. Observation and really knowing the child are key to recognising these developmental milestones. We can plan the next steps for a child’s learning after we have observed a developmental milestone.
All young children are learning something, and assessment in early childhood means analysing what a child can do. Comparing a child to his or her classmates is not useful, as it doesn’t tell us anything about what individual progress a child has made (what they knew or could do before, what they know and can do now). Assessment in early childhood is about helping children move forward in their learning and development, and labelling a child ‘intelligent’ doesn’t help them make progress in any way. To give a child confidence, it is more useful to comment on a specific thing they have done well, rather than give them a generic label.
Children should be assessed in a genuine situation rather than through a contrived, adult-led test. Asking a child to count is not a reliable way of gathering information, as the child may become anxious when asked to ‘perform’, may not understand why they are being asked to count, or may not feel confident enough to share what they can do, even though they actually do know how to count. By observing the children while they are playing, the teacher sees that, as well as being able to count to five, the child also knows the colours blue and pink. Had the focus of the assessment just been on counting, the teacher might have missed this.
Spending time with children, and observing what they know and can do, will help you provide the right amount of challenge and support. For a child who is learning English, this could be knowing their favourite story or song and encouraging them to join in with key refrains, observing that they understand the words for different toys in English and encouraging them to say some of these words, or modelling key language associated with a particular activity.
© British Council
Existem várias formas de ajudar a uma criança no seu desenvolvimento de vocabulário em inglês. Abaixo seguem algumas dessas ideias
You will notice quite a rich and varied vocabulary. We wouldn’t be expecting a child to produce this kind of language, especially if English is an additional language, but the adult can expose the child to this language, inputting key words and expressions associated with different activities in a fun and natural way. Remember that children like playing with words, even if they don’t know what the word means, and this is a valuable opportunity to work on pronunciation.
Children will reap the future benefits of this language rich environment, so closely connected to the activities that they love doing.
Playing with blocks
- use language for counting and sorting: How many are there? Shall we put the blue ones here?
- use positional language: in, on, under, below, behind, next to
- explore language related to size: big, small, long, short
- describe what a child is doing while playing: finding, stacking, pulling, pushing, building, pressing, dragging
- describe shapes and objects the children are making: square, rectangle, tower, house, castle, garden
Dress-ups (and drama)
- describe the costumes (fairy, princess, pirate, king, clown) and actions for getting dressed: put on, pull up/down, zip up, do the buttons up, unbutton, unzip
- highlight the relevant parts of the body: put your arms through here, tie this around your waist/wrist, put these on your feet – first your left foot, then your right foot, put this over your head
- use nursery rhymes and stories to model language for imaginary play
- develop listening comprehension by encouraging the children act out the rhyme or story in their costumes
- extend vocabulary associated with role-play: hospital, airport, artist’s studio, garden centre, vet, doctor, routines (breakfast/lunch/dinner/bed time)
Making and decorating (art and craft)
- name the materials: paint, paintbrush, crayon, felt-tip, marker, card, paper, crepe paper, shiny paper, tissue paper, newspaper, glue, scissors, cotton wool, fabric, sequins, feathers
- describe properties and textures of materials: runny, thick, smooth, hard, long, short, spiky, rough, shiny
- experiment with and describe colour
- use instructions: paint, draw, colour, smudge, blur, blow, copy, pour, make, cut, stick, decorate, hang (it) up
- art appreciation and describing what the children have made, painted or drawn.
Malleable materials (dough, plasticine, clay)
- use language of manipulation: push, pull, drop, squeeze, press, bend, twist, roll, stretch, squash, squish, pinch, flatten, poke, scrape, break apart
- describe length/thickness: longer than, shorter than, the same length as
- use language related to colour and smells
- describe texture: soft, hard, squishy, lumpy, grainy, shiny
- talk about materials that can be added to dough: feathers, sticks, twigs, shells
- explore language related to shapes
Music and movement activities
- use language related to actions, position and parts of the body: put your hands up in the air, draw circles in the air, touch your nose, wriggle your fingers, jump, hop, lie face down on the floor, lie on your back, move over there, come closer, curl up into a ball, stretch your arms out as wide as you can, take a nap
- name musical instruments: shaker, drum, recorder, xylophone, block, triangle, bell, tambourine
- use language to describe sounds: loud, quiet, soft, high, low, long, short, fast, slow, tap, shake, scrape, knock, tick, hum, howl
- familiarise children with a range of sounds through onomatopoeia
- use songs and rhymes to work on pronunciation, rhythm, stress and intonation
Toys and small world play
- extend vocabulary related to a particular topic: park, zoo, farm, hospital, transport
- comment on the objects, toys or figurines the children are playing with
- comment on the settings, scenes, themes or storylines children are developing as they play
- describe the position of the things the children are playing with: behind, next to, in, on, under
- describe the pictures and colours on the puzzles
- comment on the shape of the puzzle pieces: rectangle, square, triangle, circle
- comment on the position of the puzzle pieces: up/down, here/there
- encourage the social aspects of using puzzles: take turns, it’s your turn next, share
Sand play and water play
- use language related to equipment and resources: brush, spade, scoop, spoon, cup, jug, bucket, sieve, cutters, rake, comb, funnel, sponge, soap, bubbles, straw, ladle, tea pot, watering can
- extend vocabulary related to imaginary play: boats, diggers, bulldozers, tractors, treasure, dinosaurs, pirates, gardens, tea party, firefighter, plumber, dolls
- use descriptive language: wet, dry, damp, gritty, hard, lumpy, flat, smooth, wavy, sticky, cold, frozen, clean, dirty
- use language related to size, shape and position
- describe capacity and quantity: enough, more, less, too much/little, overflowing, how much/many? a pile/cup of…
- describe actions or what is happening: it’s fallen down, it’s gone, flatten, pour, tip, fill, scoop, cover, stir, splash, leak, drip, float, sink, trickle, spray, wash, dry.
© British Council
Through interactions we can support and extend a child’s learning and development, particularly in the area of communication and language.
Apart from building an emotional connection with the child through interactions, children benefit from hearing lots of talk, conversations and words. In 2012, Associate Professor at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, Meredith Rowe, carried out a study which looked at what contributes most to a child’s later vocabulary development. She found that:
- children’s vocabulary at 30 months was influenced by the quantity of words parents used one year earlier,
- their vocabulary at 42 months was influenced by parents’ use of a variety of sophisticated words one year earlier,
- their vocabulary at 54 months was influenced by parents’ use of narratives and explanations one year earlier.
Adults can interact by talking, listening and responding to the child.
Even if a child is not yet able to communicate verbally, the adult can contribute to the exchange using language. For example:
The child grizzles because he is feeling hungry.
Adult: I can see you’re upset. Would you like some milk?
The child rubs her eyes.
Adult: You look sleepy. I think it’s time for a nap.
The child flaps her arms excitedly.
Adult: I know you like that song! It goes la, la, la, la!
Child squeals in delight.
By showing genuine interest in the child and adding interest to what the child has offered, we are building trust, communication, and developing the child’s language skills all at the same time.
We can support and extend a child’s language development, just by being with them and interacting in a natural way.
© British Council
How can we provide a proper environment for children to develop?
Here are a few examples:
- Provide optimal conditions for rich play: space, time, flexible resources, choice, control, warm and supportive relationships.
- Make materials easily accessible at child height, to ensure everybody can make choices.
- Provide experiences and activities that are challenging but achievable.
- Provide activities that require give and take or sharing for things to be fair.
- Plan first-hand experiences and challenges appropriate to the development of the children.
- Convey to each child that you appreciate them and their efforts.
- Ensure children have uninterrupted time to play and explore.
- Incorporate recognisable and predictable routines to help children to predict and make connections in their experiences.
- Use puppets and other props to encourage listening and responding when singing a familiar song or reading from a story book.
- When you use songs and nursery rhymes, help children understand the words by using actions as well.
- Help children to predict and order events coherently, by providing props and materials that encourage children to re-enact, using talk and action.
- Set up displays that remind children of what they have experienced, using objects, artefacts, photographs and books.
- Display pictures and photographs showing familiar events, objects and activities and talk about them with the children.
- Provide activities which help children to learn to distinguish differences in sounds, word patterns and rhythms.
- Encourage correct use of language by telling repetitive stories, and playing games which involve repetition of words or phrases.
- Follow young children’s lead and have fun together while developing vocabulary, e.g. saying ‘We’re jumping up’, ‘crouching down low’.
- Talk through and comment on some activities to highlight specific vocabulary or language structures, e.g. “You’ve got a blue ball. I’ve got a green ball. Hannah’s got a red ball”.
- Provide collections of interesting things for children to sort, order, count and label in their play.
- Provide different sizes and shapes of containers in water play, so that children can experiment with quantities and measures.
- Offer a range of puzzles with large pieces and knobs or handles to support success in fitting shapes into spaces.
- Provide a wide range of materials, resources and sensory experiences to enable children to explore colour, texture and space.
- Provide space and time for movement and dance both indoors and outdoors.
- Lead imaginative movement sessions based on children’s current interests such as space travel, zoo animals or shadows.
- Provide a place where work in progress can be kept safely.
© Adapted from: Development Matters in the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS). London: Early Education, 2012.
Play and learning
‘What did you do at school today?’ ‘We just played.’
We’ve talked about why children play and the benefits of play, but the idea still persists that if it’s too much fun, children are not learning.
However, the evidence suggests the opposite. Research shows that children actually learn through play. Play is learning.
Children need time to play
Play is fun, all children love playing, and children learn so much through play without even realising it. So we need to give children time to play, not just ten minutes when they finish their ‘work’.
When children play, they are experimenting with ideas, testing hypotheses, mastering skills, using their imaginations and representing their world. If you cut out play when teaching English you are removing a vital step in childhood development.
Here are a few examples of the different types of things children are learning and developing as they play.
When playing with play dough children develop their fine motor skills. Children are working on hand-eye coordination and building up the muscles in their hands and fingers when modelling plasticine. These are valuable pre-writing skills, as good muscle strength and hand-eye coordination will help children hold and use writing tools properly later on. By playing with plasticine, children are also experimenting with things like colour, shape and texture.
When playing with dolls and a tub of water they are learning about the concepts of wet and dry, floating and sinking, clean and dirty. They are also engaging in sensory play, and experimenting with the way water feels.
When playing with musical instrumentschildren are developing sound recognition (the sounds that different instruments make and an understanding of how sounds can change (e.g. high, low, soft, loud, fast slow) and an appreciation of music. These valuable listening skills are transferable to the area of language and communication.
When playing with transport toys, children are experimenting with friction and motion, up and down, forwards and backwards, fast and slow.
When children are playing with blocks, they are learning about colour, shape and patterns, as well as the concepts of weight, size, height, length, vertical and horizontal.
In dramatic play and small world play(acting out scenes from real life, stories and/or imagination created with small figures and objects) children are representing ideas that help them make sense of the world around them. They can also experiment with playing different roles and inventing different scenarios, taking them beyond the real world and developing their imagination.
Toys and resources for play should be chosen on the basis that they are:
- safe – toys should be checked regularly and broken toys thrown out.
- clean – soft toys and dressing up clothes should be machine washed regularly.
- age appropriate – no toys with loose or small parts for babies and toddlers (0-3 years), safety scissors provided for children who are learning to cut, sharp objects stored out of reach.
- provide adequate supervision of children at all times.
- model safe practice and behaviour.
- set clear boundaries according to the child’s age and stage of development.
- encourage children to respect each other while playing.
- encourage children to think of the consequences of their actions.
Children will learn better knowing that they can play without hurting themselves, and are safe to experiment with new and different things.
© British Council