Definimos lingüística aplicada como um assunto acadêmico que se concentra na análise de problemas de linguagem do mundo real. Mostramos como ela se liga à linguística, mas vai além disso para abranger uma ampla gama de campos relacionados. A Linguística Aplicada é um campo de estudo relativamente novo e ainda está evoluindo e se expandindo, o que significa que os limites entre lingüística e lingüística aplicada não são claros.
Os linguistas aplicados não apenas tentam resolver problemas de linguagem do mundo real, mas também levantam questões sobre o uso da linguagem e seu impacto social. Nesse sentido, os pesquisadores linguísticos aplicados visam ser críticos, objetivos e factuais.
Vimos algumas maneiras pelas quais a pesquisa aplicada em lingüística teve um impacto real na sociedade em geral, já que essa é uma das características distintivas da disciplina; sua aplicação a problemas da vida real onde a linguagem é central. Vimos também que uma das principais aplicações é melhorar a eficiência e a eficácia do ensino, aprendizagem e avaliação de línguas, uma área que iremos aprofundar nas próximas semanas.
We’ve defined applied linguistics as an academic subject that focuses on the analysis of real world language problems. We have shown how it links to linguistics but goes beyond this to cover a broad range of related fields. Applied Linguistics is a relatively new field of study and is still evolving and expanding, which means that the boundaries between linguistics and applied linguistics are not clear cut.
Applied linguists not only try to solve real world language problems but also raise questions about language use and its social impact. In this sense, applied linguistic researchers aim to be critical as well as objective and factual.
We have looked at just a few ways that applied linguistics research has had a real impact on broader society, as this is one of the distinctive features of the discipline; its application to real life problems where language is central. We have also seen that one of the key applications is to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of language teaching, learning and assessment, which is an area that we will explore further in the following weeks.
Global business speaks English
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With the continuing globalisation of trade and commerce, many organisations, from great multinationals to small companies do business around the world and need to communicate with clients and competitors, many of whom may have a different first language. Very often, the language adopted as a common language or lingua franca is English.
As a recent article in the Harvard Business Review puts it, ‘Global Business Speaks English’.
This is an additional video, hosted on YouTube.
Reflection – the role of English in global business
Do you agree with Dr Tsedal Neeley about the role of English in global business? Are there any negative implications of adopting English as a company lingua franca?
What do you understand by the terms ‘dial up’ and ‘dial down’ in relation to language use? Do you agree that native speakers need to ‘dial down’ and non-native speakers need to ‘dial up’? If so, how would they do this?
© University of Leicester
The unprecedented spread of one language as an international lingua franca has socio-economic, political and ideological consequences.
Two key issues debated include:
- whether the spread of English as an international means of communication serves to sustain the privilege and power of its native speakers (what Phillipson refers to as ‘linguistic imperialism’ (1992)) or whether reasons for learning English now are more pragmatic than ideological in nature (Bisong 1995)
- who, if anyone, ‘owns’ English, now that is used on such an intensive scale globally – for example, does the term native speaker still have relevance when large numbers of people have a very high, nativelike level of competence; when many children in countries outside the traditional ‘native speaker heartlands’, i.e. the US, UK, Ireland, Canada and Australia etc., are learning English as a first language; and when most interactions in English take place without a so-called native speaker even being present ?
Why is phonics important?
Phonics is important in learning to read and write. Research supports the view that phonics is a key predictor of later reading success.
English is a phonetic language, which means we have a sound that is matched by a written letter or combination of written letters.
Matching sounds to letters © QUT English is the most complex alphabetic language to learn because it is irregular – there can be many options for combining letters to create a specific sound, or combining sounds to make up a word. However, there are parts of the English language that do follow rules and it’s important that children understand these rules to be successful decoders.
Learning to read is complex and phonics is just one part of code-related literacy development and becoming literate.
Building blocks of literacy. Adapted from The Melissa Institute. © QUT Learning to read also involves developing strategies in all of the blocks in the image above, as well as discovering the pleasure of reading and reading for a purpose.
Oral language and phonological awareness play a key role in early childhood literacy development. Phonics knowledge is finite and can be learnt quickly, whereas comprehension and vocabulary knowledge continues to develop over a lifetime. This makes phonics learning easier to measure than comprehension and vocabulary development.
Over the past 50 years, academics, policymakers and education leaders have argued over whether we should, or should not, teach phonics. Rather than arguing whether phonics is necessary, research has shifted from ‘should we or shouldn’t we’ teach phonics, to what form of phonics should be taught, when, and how much.
There are a range of different ways you can teach phonics in your early years setting. The ‘best’ way to teach phonics is through teachers using their informed professional judgment about what’s needed for the children they’re teaching.
What is phonics?
Phonics is understanding the structure of oral language and its representation in written language. It’s a method for teaching children to read by helping them to connect sounds with letters or groups of letters. Phonics is just one part of learning to read.
Phonemes are the smallest units of sound in oral language. The relationship between phonemes and letters is known as phoneme-grapheme correspondence – more commonly known as phonics.
Explaining phonological awareness
Phonological awareness is the ability to detect and manipulate the larger units of sound; for example, rhyme and syllables. Phonological awareness is important for children in the prior-to-school years. Research suggests it is easier to attend to larger units of sound, such as rhymes and counting syllables, than it is to attend to the smaller units of sound as in phonemic awareness.
Os verbos modais têm diferentes possibilidades. Não são fáceis de serem usados, pois necessitamos ter um entendimento desta possibilidade.
Eles podem variar de acordo com o tempo verbal ou a ênfase que se quer dar.
Por exemplo: habilidade, obrigação, permissão, sugestão, conselho, previsão, promessa, pedido, possibilidade ou decisão.
Veja alguns exemplos na imagem e entenda melhor sobre eles.
Ter um bom currículo é muito importante e fundamental em um processo seletivo. Por isso precisamos saber bem quais técnicas usar para dar o devido destaque às habilidades e competências.
Um currículo com erros de gramática, concordância ou ortografia pode dificultar o seu processo.
Segue um link com 1 áudio e 3 atividades para ajudar a vocês nessa difícil tarefa.
Espero que gostem.
Vc é bom em adivinhações? Aqui seguem algumas simples, mas engraçadas.
1. I’m easy to get into but hard to get out of. What am I?
2. What is full of holes but can still hold water?
3. I can go up a chimney down, but not down a chimney up. What am I?
4. What is brown and sticky?
5. It takes ten men ten hours to build a wall. How long does it take five men to build the same wall?
6. What is the best way to stop your hat falling off your head?
7. Two is a company and three is a crowd. What is 4 and 5?
8. How many letters are there in the alphabet?
9. What heavy seven letter word can you take two away from and be left with eight?
10. If you have three apples and four oranges in one hand and four apples and three oranges in the other hand, what do you have?
2. A sponge
3. An umbrella
4. A stick
5. No time – the wall was already built
6. Don’t put it on your head!
8. 11. There are 11 letters in “the alphabet”
10. Unusually large hands!
1. What five-letter word becomes shorter when you add two letters to it?
2. What type of cheese is made backwards?
3. What gets wetter as it dries?
4. What has to be broken before you can use it?
5. Why can’t a man living in London be buried in Manchester?
6. How many letters are there in the English alphabet?
7. Which month has 28 days?
8. What two things can you never eat for breakfast?
9. Seven frogs are sitting on a log. One of them decides to jump off of the log. How many frogs are on the log?
10. Everybody has me and nobody can lose me. What am I?
3. A towel
4. An egg
5. Because he is still living!
6. There are 18: 3 in ‘the’, 7 in ‘English’ and 8 in ‘alphabet’.
7. All of them of course!
8. Lunch and dinner!
9. Still seven. He decided but he hasn’t jumped yet.
10. A shadow.
Seguem nos dois idiomas ( inglês e português) algumas explicações sobre como as habilidades são ensinadas durante uma aula on-line.
Aulas de habilidades receptivas e produtivas on-line e presencial são semelhantes em muitos aspectos, mas o uso da tecnologia significa que existem algumas diferenças.
Ensinar inglês on-line exige que o professor ouça e observe os alunos o tempo todo, monitore seu idioma, dê feedback, incentive a participação e o engajamento, assim como os professores fazem na sala de aula presencial.
Ensinar a ler online pode ser tão eficaz quanto ensiná-lo presencial e pode ser integrado a outras habilidades. Os livros de capa dura e folhetos de papel são substituídos por suas versões digitais. Existem muitos livros e sites digitais que os professores podem extrair texto ou uma história e compartilhar com seus alunos on-line.
Ensinar a ouvir, embora seja uma habilidade mais receptiva, pode ser integrado à habilidade produtiva de falar. É importante usar o equipamento certo. Os professores precisam garantir que os alunos possam ouvir. Todas as tarefas de escuta podem ser perfeitamente realizadas on-line, como tarefas de pré-escuta, assistir a um vídeo ou ouvir um arquivo de áudio, tarefas de pós-escuta, técnicas de decodificação (com a ajuda do quadro branco, caixa de bate-papo ou compartilhando recursos na tela ). O áudio pode ser rebobinado quantas vezes forem necessárias.
Ensinar a escrever em uma sala de aula presencial é geralmente ignorado porque pode ser percebido como demorado e geralmente visto como tarefa de lição de casa sem muita reflexão – mas não deveria ser! Ensinar a escrever online pode ser uma experiência divertida e agradável, desde que os professores estejam cientes das ferramentas disponíveis e deixem a sua criatividade brilhar. Escrever é um processo que envolve pensar, debater idéias, polir, pensar sobre a estrutura, conectar idéias, revisar e assim por diante.
Receptive and productive skills lessons online and face-to-face are similar in many ways, but the use of technology does mean there are some differences.
Teaching English online requires the teacher to listen and watch the students all the time, monitor their language, give feedback, encourage participation and engagement just as teachers do in the face-to-face classroom.
Teaching reading online can be as effective as teaching it face-to-face and it can be integrated with other skills. The hardcover books and paper handouts are replaced by their digital versions. There are many digital books and websites that teachers can extract text or a story from and share with their online students.
Teaching listening, though a more receptive skill, can be integrated with the productive speaking skill. It’s important to use the right equipment . Teachers need to ensure the students can listen. All listening tasks can be perfectly conducted online, such as pre-listening tasks, watching a video or listening to an audio file, post-listening tasks, decoding techniques (with the help of the whiteboard, chat box or by sharing resources on the screen). The audio can be rewound as many times as needed.
Teaching writing in a face-to-face classroom is usually overlooked because it may be perceived as time-consuming and it’s generally seen as a homework task without much thought – but it shouldn’t be! Teaching writing online can be a fun and enjoyable experience as long as teachers are aware of the tools available and let their creativity spark. Writing is a process that involves thinking, brainstorming ideas, polishing them, thinking about the structure, connecting ideas, proofreading and so on.