Quer aprender a falar com fluência, ler e escrever bem e-mails, viajar sem medo, tirar exame de competência ou apenas se dar bem na escola?
Eu te ajudo.
Quer aprender a falar com fluência, ler e escrever bem e-mails, viajar sem medo, tirar exame de competência ou apenas se dar bem na escola?
Eu te ajudo.
A nice tale to cheer up your day.
“Once upon a time, there was a wise man who used to go to the ocean to do his writing. He had a habit of walking on the beach before he began his work.
One day, as he was walking along the shore, he looked down the beach and saw a human figure moving like a dancer. He smiled to himself at the thought of someone who would dance to the day, and so, he walked faster to catch up.
As he got closer, he noticed that the figure was that of a young man, and that what he was doing was not dancing at all. The young man was reaching down to the shore, picking up small objects, and throwing them into the ocean.
He came closer still and called out “Good morning! May I ask what it is that you are doing?”
The young man paused, looked up, and replied “Throwing starfish into the ocean.”
“I must ask, then, why are you throwing starfish into the ocean?” asked the somewhat startled wise man.
To this, the young man replied, “The sun is up and the tide is going out. If I don’t throw them in, they’ll die.”
Upon hearing this, the wise man commented, “But, young man, do you not realize that there are miles and miles of beach and there are starfish all along every mile? You can’t possibly make a difference!”
At this, the young man bent down, picked up yet another starfish, and threw it into the ocean. As it met the water, he said,
“It made a difference for that one.”
Alguns de meus queridos alunos que com esforço e dedicação terminaram mais um ano letivo. Parabéns a todos!
Algumas dessas tradições, nós tbm fazemos no Brasil, outras já estudamos durante as aulas. Vale conferir e praticar sua leitura.
Many New Year traditions that we take for granted actually date back to ancient times. This year, ring out the old and ring in the new with a new New Year tradition—or two!
MAKE SOME NOISE
Making a lot of noise—from fireworks to gun shots to church bells—seems to be a favorite pastime around the world.
• In ancient Thailand, guns were fired to frighten off demons.
• In China, firecrackers routed the forces of darkness.
• In the early American colonies, the sound of pistol shots rang through the air.
• Today, Italians let their church bells peal, the Swiss beat drums, and the North Americans sound sirens and party horns to bid the old year farewell.
EAT LUCKY FOOD
Many New Year traditions surround food. Here are a few:
• The tradition of eating 12 grapes at midnight comes from Spain. Revelers stuff their mouths with 12 grapes in the final moments of the year—one grape for every chime of the clock!
• In the southern US, black-eyed peas and pork foretell good fortune. See our recipe for Good Luck Hoppin’ John!
• In Scotland—where Hogmanay is celebrated—people parade down the streets swinging balls of fire.
• Eating any ring-shaped treat (such as a doughnut) symbolizes “coming full circle” and leads to good fortune. In Dutch homes, fritters called olie bollen are served.
• The Irish enjoy pastries called bannocks.
• In India and Pakistan, rice promises prosperity.
• Apples dipped in honey are a Rosh Hashanah (Jewish New Year) tradition.
• In Swiss homes, dollops of whipped cream, symbolizing the richness of the year to come, are dropped on the floors—and allowed to remain there!
HAVE A DRINK
Although the pop of a champagne cork signals the arrival of the New Year around the world, some countries have their own beverage-based traditions.
• Wassail, a punch-like drink named after the Gaelic term for “good health,” is served in some parts of England.
• Spiced “hot pint” is the Scottish version of Wassail. Traditionally, the Scots drank to each others’ prosperity and also offered this warm drink to neighbors along with a small gift.
• In Holland, toasts are made with hot, spiced wine.
GIVE A GIFT
New Year’s Day was once the time to swap presents.
• Gifts of gilded nuts or coins marked the start of the new year in Rome.
• Eggs, the symbol of fertility, were exchanged by the Persians.
• Early Egyptians traded earthenware flasks.
• In Scotland, coal, shortbread and silverware were traditionally exchanged for good luck.
PUT YOUR BEST FOOT FORWARD
In Scotland, the custom of first-footing is an important part of the celebration of Hogmanay, or New Year’s Eve Day.
After midnight, family and friends visit each other’s home. The “first foot” to cross a threshold after midnight will predict the next year’s fortune. Although the tradition varies, those deemed especially fortunate as “first footers” are new brides, new mothers, those who are tall and dark (and
handsome?) or anyone born on January 1.
TURN OVER A NEW LEAF
The dawn of a new year is an opportune time to take stock of your life.
• Jews who observe Rosh Hashanah make time for personal introspection and prayer, as well as visiting graves.
• Christian churches hold “watch-night” services, a custom that began in 1770 at Old St. Georges Methodist Church in Philadelphia.
• The practice of making New Year’s resolutions, said to have begun with the Babylonians as early as 2600 B.C., is another way to reflect on the past and plan ahead.
NEW YEAR’S FOLKLORE
Some customs and beliefs are simply passed down through the ages. Here are some of our favorite age-old sayings and proverbs.
• On New Year’s Eve, kiss the person you hope to keep kissing.
• If New Year’s Eve night wind blow south, It betokeneth warmth and growth.
• For abundance in the new year, fill your pockets and cupboards today.
• If the old year goes out like a lion, the new year will come in like a lamb.
• Begin the new year square with every man. [i.e., pay your debts!] –Robert B. Thomas, founder of The Old Farmer’s Almanac
So, whether we resolve to return borrowed farm equipment (as did the Babylonians) or drop a few pounds, we’re tapping into an ancient and powerful longing for a fresh start!
HAPPY NEW YEAR!!!!
Coronary heart disease is the biggest killer causing many deaths each year. More than a quarter of the deaths occur in people who are younger than 75 and experts say the majority are preventable.
1. Buy a blender
The World Health Organization recommends eating a minimum of 400g of fruit and veg a day to lower the risk of serious health problems, such as heart disease. Easier said than done? By throwing some fruit in the blender and starting the day with a tasty juice or smoothie, you’ll have hit your five a day target before you’ve even left for work. And with so many great combinations to try (butternut squash, ginger and date anyone?), you’ll soon be hooked.
2. Say no to tobacco
Smoking is one of the main causes of coronary heart disease. According to the NHS, a year after giving up, your risk of a heart attack falls to about half that of a smoker. And your bank balance won’t look so bad either! Ditching the ciggies can be tricky so speak to your doctor.
3. Ditch the bus for the bike
To keep the heart healthy, it is recommended that adults aged 19-64 fit in 150 minutes of moderate aerobic activity a week. It sounds like a lot but broken down that’s 30 minutes of activity on five days of the week. If you can, running, cycling or walking to work is a great way to squeeze it in without taking time out of your day. You’ll impress your colleagues too.
4. Walk the dog
Taking the dog out for a walk is another brilliant way to get fresh air and daily exercise. Don’t have a pooch? Why not borrow a friend or neighbour’s furry friend? You’ll be doing them a favour, and you get some company while you exercise. Just don’t expect great conversation.
5. Fish Fridays
Cold water fish such as mackerel, sardines, tuna and salmon are a rich source of omega-3 fats, which can help protect against heart disease. Try swapping meat out for fish a few days of the week. Cod luck!
6. Go nuts
Walnuts, almonds, peanuts, and other nuts are packed with mono-unsaturated, heart-friendly fats, and studies show they help to lower the bad form of cholesterol. Grab a handful instead of crisps or chocolate when you feel peckish, and sprinkle them on top of salads or cereal for a tasty crunch.
No pressure, but Barry needs walkies.
7. Swap the cocktails for the mocktails
Drinking excessive amounts of alcohol causes raised blood pressure – one of the biggest risk factors for having a heart attack. All those calories can also mean weight gain, another factor in heart disease. Try cutting down on the booze if you can, avoid binging, and squeeze in a few ‘dry’ days every week. There are some great alcohol free wines on the market plus some ‘mocktails’ taste as good as the real deal. Another fun way to hit your five a day!
8. Take a deep breath
Stress is another big factor in high blood pressure so try to stay calm and stress free as much as possible. Deep, slow breathing is the simplest technique for decreasing stress and therefore one of the most effective natural remedies for high blood pressure. You can do it wherever you are and whatever you’re doing – and it’s free!
9. Go Karaoke crazy
Researchers at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, found that choristers’ heartbeats synchronised when they sang together, bringing about a calming affect that could mean resilience to cardiac arrest. Dr Björn Vickhoff, who led the study says, “Song is a form of regular, controlled breathing… It helps you relax, and there are indications that it does provide a heart benefit.” Don’t fancy joining a choir? Then go wild with some guilt free singing in the shower.
10. Aim for eight hours between the sheets
Irregular or insufficient sleep – less than six hours a night – appears to be hazardous to our heart health, increasing the risk of stroke or heart attack. Sleep-deprived people have higher blood levels of stress hormones, a key player in cardiovascular disease, and lack of sleep can also alter your metabolism, making you prone to weight gain. If you can, keep your bedroom nice and quiet, try not to eat a big meal too late at night (which can ramp up your metabolism and make it difficult for your body to wind down), and avoid caffeine late in the day.
Source: BBC Broadcasting House, Portland Place, London
A Little of Something …
“Having somewhere to go is home. Having someone to love is family. Having both is a blessing.”
“It didn’t matter how big our house was; it mattered that there was love in it.”
“You don’t choose your family. They are God’s gift to you, as you are to them.”
“We must take care of our families wherever we find them.”
“Family means no one gets left behind or forgotten.”
David Ogden Stiers
História do Halloween
Halloween cai em 31 de outubro de cada ano na América do Norte e em outras partes do mundo. O que você sabe sobre Halloween? Você celebra isso em seu país? Aqui está um pouco de história sobre isso.
Como muitos outros feriados, Halloween evoluiu e mudou ao longo da história. Há mais de 2.000 anos, as pessoas chamadas celtas viviam no que é agora a Irlanda, o Reino Unido e partes do norte da França. 1 de novembro foi seu dia de ano novo. Eles acreditavam que a noite anterior ao Ano Novo (31 de outubro) era uma época em que os vivos e os mortos se juntaram.
Há mais de mil anos, a igreja cristã recebeu o primeiro dia de todos os santos (também chamado de All Hallows). Este foi um dia santo especial para honrar os santos e outras pessoas que morreram por sua religião. Na noite anterior, All Hallows foi chamado Hallows Eve. Mais tarde, o nome foi alterado para Halloween.
Como os celtas, os europeus da época também acreditavam que os espíritos dos mortos visitariam a Terra no Dia das Bruxas. Eles estavam preocupados com o fato de espíritos malignos causar problemas ou machucá-los. Então naquela noite as pessoas usavam figurinos que pareciam fantasmas ou outras criaturas malignas. Eles pensavam que se eles se vestiam assim, os espíritos pensariam que também estavam mortos e não os prejudicavam.
A tradição do Halloween foi levada para a América pelos europeus imigrantes. Entretanto, algumas das tradições mudaram um pouco. Por exemplo, no Halloween na Europa, algumas pessoas levariam lanternas feitas de nabos. Na América, as abóboras eram mais comuns. Então as pessoas começaram a colocar velas dentro deles e usá-las como lanternas. É por isso que você vê Jack ‘o lanterns hoje.
Hoje em dia Halloween não é geralmente considerado um feriado religioso. É principalmente um dia divertido para crianças. As crianças se vestiram de fantasias como as pessoas faziam mil anos atrás. Mas em vez de se preocuparem com espíritos malignos, eles vão de casa em casa. Eles tocam nas portas e dizem “doçura ou travessura”. O proprietário de cada casa dá doces ou algo especial para cada truque ou treater.
Feliz Dia das Bruxas!
History of Halloween
Halloween falls on October 31st each year in North America and other parts of the world. What do you know about Halloween? Do you celebrate it in your country? Here is a little history about it.
to evolve (v)– to change little by little
spirit (n)– ghost, some people believe the spirit and body separate when a person dies
holy (adj)– sacred, very good, related to religion. Hallow comes from the word holy.
saint (n)– an honored, holy person
evil (adj)– very, very bad
lantern (n)– lamp or enclosed light that can be carried around
turnip (n)– a purple and white vegetable that grows in the ground
Like many other holidays, Halloween has evolved and changed throughout history. Over 2,000 years ago people called the Celts lived in what is now Ireland, the UK, and parts of Northern France. November 1 was their New Year’s Day. They believed that the night before the New Year (October 31) was a time when the living and the dead came together.
More than a thousand years ago the Christian church named November 1 All Saints Day (also called All Hallows.) This was a special holy day to honor the saints and other people who died for their religion. The night before All Hallows was called Hallows Eve. Later the name was changed to Halloween.
Like the Celts, the Europeans of that time also believed that the spirits of the dead would visit the earth on Halloween. They worried that evil spirits would cause problems or hurt them. So on that night people wore costumes that looked like ghosts or other evil creatures. They thought if they dressed like that, the spirits would think they were also dead and not harm them.
The tradition of Halloween was carried to America by the immigrating Europeans. Some of the traditions changed a little, though. For example, on Halloween in Europe some people would carry lanterns made from turnips. In America, pumpkins were more common. So people began putting candles inside them and using them as lanterns. That is why you see Jack ‘o lanterns today.
These days Halloween is not usually considered a religious holiday. It is primarily a fun day for children. Children dress up in costumes like people did a thousand years ago. But instead of worrying about evil spirits, they go from house to house. They knock on doors and say “trick or treat.” The owner of each house gives candy or something special to each trick or treater.
There are many benefits of studying for older learners, such as increased self-confidence, increased feelings of health and well-being, reduced feelings of isolation, and increased engagement in the community.
Many seniors wish to study a foreign language and there is now substantial evidence that they can learn a new language effectively. My experience is that senior learners are excellent language students for a number of reasons.
Senior students have a wealth of life experience and when they bring this to the classroom they enrich the learning experience of the whole class. Our teachers comment that older learners are excellent students to have in the classroom as they are always happy to talk about their experiences and give their opinions on a wide range of topics.
Senior learners do not normally need a certificate, diploma or university credit; their motivation is intrinsic. They may study for intellectual enjoyment, to socialise with their peers or because it is something they have always wanted to do. In fact, senior learners are very often more highly motivated than younger learners. Their high level of motivation is a great advantage as this has been identified as one of the most important factors in determining successful language learning. The motivation of senior learners is reflected by the fact that they rarely miss a class, participate very actively in the classroom and always do their homework.
We have discovered that there is a strong social component in seniors attending English classes. They often attend class to mix with their peers, forming very strong friendships and socialising together after the class and even in their free time.
Our experience is that senior learners have an extremely positive attitude toward language learning and life in general. They treat both their teachers and their classmates with the utmost respect and politeness. Our teachers often comment on how kind, considerate, and hardworking senior learners are, and what a pleasure they are to teach.
So our experience is that the life experience, motivation to learn, and positive attitude of senior learners provide them with many advantages as language learners. However, there are cognitive, affective and physiological factors which can affect senior language learning. We are going to identify these factors and then look at how you can adapt your courses and practices to meet the needs of older learners.
Helping students hear
Hearing loss may have a direct impact on learning and performance for senior learners. In order to decrease the negative effects of this auditory loss, teachers should try to accommodate the aging ear in a number of ways by:
• speaking clearly and ensuring that the students can see their face and lips.
• adjusting the volume for listenings and videos.
• repeating listening texts.
• using short films and videos which aid listening comprehension as students can see the face and lips of the speakers.
• ensuring that your classrooms have little background noise.
Helping students see
Defective vision increases dramatically as people age. Visual ability is particularly important in education as it is generally accepted that approximately 80% of all learning occurs through vision. To accommodate this loss in vision, here are some steps to follow:
• Use a larger print type for printed text.
• Make sure that senior students sit as close to the board as possible.
• Write very clearly on the board.
• Ensure that classrooms have a lot of natural light and that there is direct lighting for the whiteboard.
As people age the body tends to lose some strength, flexibility and mobility. They may also suffer from arthritis and rheumatism. These changes may make it difficult for older learners to move around the classroom. To compensate for these changes we recommend doing the following things:
• Ensure that older learners have comfortable chairs and tables.
• Allow more time for older students to do whole class communicative activities where students have to stand up and move around the classroom.
Research indicates that cognitive development, recall, and problem solving may show decline with aging. In order to overcome this cognitive decline which may make it more difficult to learn a new language, teachers can help seniors develop and maintain their cognitive ability in a number of ways:
• Integrate memory exercises into classes. Use visual and auditory mnemonic devices, examples and memory associations to help seniors rehearse and later retrieve vocabulary and expressions from long-term memory.
• Systematically repeat and recycle grammar, vocabulary and expressions.
• Encourage students to draw on their wealth of experiences and to use cognitive strategies they have used successfully in the past in their current language learning environment.
• Allow more time for students to produce language without being interrupted.
Building confidence / Reducing stress
Many older learners fear failure and are more anxious than younger learners, perhaps this is because they accept the stereotype of the older learner as a poor language learner or because of previous unsuccessful attempts to learn a foreign language. Older learners need to feel comfortable and trust the teacher and the other students before they participate fully in the language classroom. A key role of the teacher is to reduce anxiety and build trust and self-confidence in the senior learner.
Here are some of the things teachers can do to reduce stress and build self-confidence in older adult learners:
• Find out what our older learners’ motivations are for learning a language and adjust our methodology accordingly.
• Use humanistic techniques to build empathy between the teacher and students, and among the students.
• Reduce the focus on error correction to build learners’ self-confidence and to promote language production.
• Avoid timed tests which may make senior learners anxious.
• Give senior students more time to complete activities.
• Promote a friendly and relaxed atmosphere in the classroom.
My experience is that any difficulties which senior learners may experience in the language classroom can be overcome through adjustments to the learning environment and material, attention to physical, affective and cognitive factors, and the use of an effective teaching methodology which focuses on the learning process rather than academic achievement.
Kieran Donaghy is teacher at UAB Idiomes, Barcelona. He is also the creator of http://film-english.com/, an award-winning website providing free resources for teachers wishing to use video effectively in their classrooms.