O Poder dos Testes

Vivemos em um mundo onde as pessoas têm opiniões diferentes sobre a sociedade. Isto é especialmente verdadeiro quando se trata de entender onde está o poder e quem o exerce.

Leia os dois extratos seguintes dos livros que abordam a questão do uso social e político dos testes de linguagem.

Extrato 1. De Elana Shohamy (2000). O poder dos testes. Longman: Harlow, pp. 15-17.

“Os usos dos resultados dos testes têm efeitos prejudiciais para os participantes, já que tais usos podem criar vencedores e perdedores, sucessos e fracassos, rejeições e aceitações. As pontuações dos testes são muitas vezes os únicos indicadores para colocar pessoas em níveis de classe, para conceder certificados e prêmios, para determinar se uma pessoa será autorizada a continuar em estudos futuros, para decidir sobre uma profissão, para participar de aulas de educação especial, para participar de honra. aulas, para ser aceito no ensino superior e para obter empregos … Os testes são usados como um método de impor certos comportamentos sobre aqueles que estão sujeitos a eles. Os testes são capazes de ditar aos participantes o que eles precisam saber, o que aprenderão e o que aprenderão. Os candidatos estão dispostos a fazê-lo, a fim de maximizar suas pontuações, tendo em conta os efeitos prejudiciais que os resultados podem ter sobre suas vidas ”

Extrato 2: Glenn Fulcher (2015). Reexaminar os testes de linguagem: uma pesquisa filosófica e social. Londres e Nova York: Routledge, p. 155.

“Embora testes e avaliações pressupor desigualdade, é uma desigualdade de resultados, não de oportunidades. Kariya e Dore (2006) fazem uma distinção entre os ‘igualitaristas comunais’ revolucionários que distribuem a renda, o prestígio e o poder igualmente entre todos os membros da sociedade, e ‘igualitaristas meritocráticos que estão interessados principalmente na igualdade de oportunidades para competir por resultados que possam ser Embora o qualificador “vastamente” possa ser questionável em uma democracia moderna, é o que hoje chamamos de igualitarismo meritocrático que motivou a compreensão vitoriana da igualdade. Significava a remoção do privilégio, a provisão de tal educação que levaria ao sufrágio universal e oportunidade para todos na sala de exame, sujeita ao impacto inevitável do background socioeconômico (como a capacidade de pagar por aulas particulares). Em suma, essas foram as características críticas de uma sociedade democrática, e o teste é uma parte essencial do mecanismo que faz com que funcione. ”(Fulcher, 2015, p. 155).

In English

The power of tests

We live in a world where people hold different views about society. This is especially true when it comes to understanding where power lies and who exercises it.

Read the following two extracts from books that address the question of the social and political use of language tests.

Extract 1. From Elana Shohamy (2000). The Power of Tests. Longman: Harlow, pp. 15 – 17.

“The uses of test results have detrimental effects for test takers since such uses can create winners and losers, successes and failures, rejections and acceptances. Test scores are often the sole indicators for placing people in class levels, for granting certificates and prizes, for determing whether a person will be allowed to continue in future studies, for deciding on a profession, for entering special education classes, for participating in honour classes, for getting accepted into higher education and for obtaining jobs….Tests are used as a method of imposing certain behaviours on those who are subject to them. Tests are capable of dictating to test takers what they need to know, what they will learn and what they will be taught. Test takers are willing to do so in order to maximize their scores, given the detrimental effects the results may have on their lives”

Extract 2: Glenn Fulcher (2015). Re-examining Language Testing: A Philosophical and Social Inquiry. London & New York: Routledge, p. 155.

“Although testing and assessment presupposes inequality, it is an inequality of outcomes, not of opportunities. Kariya and Dore (2006) make a distinction between the revolutionary ‘communal egalitarians’ who would distribute income, prestige and power equally among all members of society, and ‘meritocratic egalitarians who are interested primarily in equality of opportunity to compete for outcomes that may be vastly unequal.’ While the qualifier ‘vastly’ may be objectionable in a modern democracy, it is nevertheless what we now call meritocratic egalitarianism that motivated the Victorian understanding of equality. It meant the removal of privilege, the provision of such education as would lead to universal suffrage and opportunity for all in the examination hall, subject to the inevitable impact of socioeconomic background (such as the ability to pay for private tuition). In short, these were the critical features of a democratic society, and testing is an essential part of the mechanism that makes it work.” (Fulcher, 2015, p. 155).

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Resumo da semana sobre Linguística Aplicada

Definimos lingüística aplicada como um assunto acadêmico que se concentra na análise de problemas de linguagem do mundo real. Mostramos como ela se liga à linguística, mas vai além disso para abranger uma ampla gama de campos relacionados. A Linguística Aplicada é um campo de estudo relativamente novo e ainda está evoluindo e se expandindo, o que significa que os limites entre lingüística e lingüística aplicada não são claros.

Os linguistas aplicados não apenas tentam resolver problemas de linguagem do mundo real, mas também levantam questões sobre o uso da linguagem e seu impacto social. Nesse sentido, os pesquisadores linguísticos aplicados visam ser críticos, objetivos e factuais.

Vimos algumas maneiras pelas quais a pesquisa aplicada em lingüística teve um impacto real na sociedade em geral, já que essa é uma das características distintivas da disciplina; sua aplicação a problemas da vida real onde a linguagem é central. Vimos também que uma das principais aplicações é melhorar a eficiência e a eficácia do ensino, aprendizagem e avaliação de línguas, uma área que iremos aprofundar nas próximas semanas.

In English

We’ve defined applied linguistics as an academic subject that focuses on the analysis of real world language problems. We have shown how it links to linguistics but goes beyond this to cover a broad range of related fields. Applied Linguistics is a relatively new field of study and is still evolving and expanding, which means that the boundaries between linguistics and applied linguistics are not clear cut.

Applied linguists not only try to solve real world language problems but also raise questions about language use and its social impact. In this sense, applied linguistic researchers aim to be critical as well as objective and factual.

We have looked at just a few ways that applied linguistics research has had a real impact on broader society, as this is one of the distinctive features of the discipline; its application to real life problems where language is central. We have also seen that one of the key applications is to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of language teaching, learning and assessment, which is an area that we will explore further in the following weeks.

Who has the authority nowadays to set the rules for what is correct and what is incorrect English?

The unprecedented spread of one language as an international lingua franca has socio-economic, political and ideological consequences.

Two key issues debated include:

  • whether the spread of English as an international means of communication serves to sustain the privilege and power of its native speakers (what Phillipson refers to as ‘linguistic imperialism’ (1992)) or whether reasons for learning English now are more pragmatic than ideological in nature (Bisong 1995)
  • who, if anyone, ‘owns’ English, now that is used on such an intensive scale globally – for example, does the term native speaker still have relevance when large numbers of people have a very high, nativelike level of competence; when many children in countries outside the traditional ‘native speaker heartlands’, i.e. the US, UK, Ireland, Canada and Australia etc., are learning English as a first language; and when most interactions in English take place without a so-called native speaker even being present ?

Linguística Aplicada.

Estou fazendo um novo curso da Leicester University sobre esse tema e irei passar algumas informações para vcs.

Some misconceptions around applied linguistics

The fields of linguistics and applied linguistics are not well understood and there are numerous misconceptions surrounding the terms. A common response to someone who says they are a linguist or an ‘applied linguist’ is ‘how many languages do you speak?’ or ‘I’ve never been very good at grammar’. Here we will try to remove some of the misconceptions about what linguistics is.

What linguistics is not:

It is not about speaking many different languages

Linguistics is not about learning as many languages as possible, although many linguists do speak other languages because of a fascination with language or to get a better understanding of how languages work in general.

The name for a person who can speak many languages is a ‘polyglot’, not a ‘linguist’. Asking a linguist how many languages they speak is like asking a doctor how many diseases they have had. Linguists study languages (and language). They look at languages as data and learn to recognize and analyse patterns and differences within and between languages, just as doctors learn to recognize and analyse signs and symptoms of diseases.

It is not about knowing everything about language

Like many professionals, such as scientists, doctors or engineers, linguists can specialise in one of many areas, such as grammar, phonology or semantics. However, the study of language is a massive field and although a linguist may have a general knowledge of many areas of language, they cannot be expected to know everything.

It is not about telling people how to speak or write language correctly

It is often assumed that linguists will settle discussions about what is ‘correct’ or ‘incorrect’ in language (eg should the ‘t’ be pronounced in ‘often’; do you say ‘between you and me’ or ‘between you and I’). However, linguists describe rather than prescribe – they analyse what people do with language not what they should do. A linguist may describe what is appropriate in standard language in a formal context but their interest is in understanding how language is used in different situations and by different people, and how languages change and evolve, rather than prescribing what should be done. So a linguist might ask, for instance, ‘Which speakers (what ages, which genders, which regions, etc.) prefer ‘between you and I’, and which prefer ‘between you and me’? And in what social situations and in what types of sentences is one of these patterns preferred over the other?

It is not only for academics

Linguistics is an academic discipline and many linguists teach and research at universities, but they can also work in a wide range of other fields.

Linguists can work in industry, for example working on speech recognition software or natural language processing or as translators or interpreters for multinational companies. Many work in education, for example as a curriculum planner or as a teacher of English as a second language. Some linguists work in government, for example advising on language policy and planning, or in publishing, writing or editing textbooks. And some even end up working in the entertainment industry, as a voice coach for actors and presenters.

A knowledge of linguistics can also be useful for many other careers, such as journalism, publicity and advertising or any other area where language is important.

It is not just about grammar

Although grammar is a key part of language, it is only one part among many. The main components of linguistic enquiry are explained in the next section.

Task/reflection

Here are a couple of examples of well-known phrases which some would consider are ‘not grammatically correct’.

‘I can’t get no satisfaction’ (Rolling Stones song title)

‘To boldly go where no man has gone before’ (Star Trek, 1960s US TV series)

Do you think they are ungrammatical’ and if so, why? Do you think they are ‘acceptable’? Share your ideas in the comments area.

Por quê ensinar Fonética é importante?

Why is phonics important?

Phonics is important in learning to read and write. Research supports the view that phonics is a key predictor of later reading success.

English is a phonetic language, which means we have a sound that is matched by a written letter or combination of written letters.

The letter b and the sound b represented by the insect beeMatching sounds to letters © QUT English is the most complex alphabetic language to learn because it is irregular – there can be many options for combining letters to create a specific sound, or combining sounds to make up a word. However, there are parts of the English language that do follow rules and it’s important that children understand these rules to be successful decoders.

Learning to read is complex and phonics is just one part of code-related literacy development and becoming literate.

Building blocks with reading comprehension at apex; concepts related to oral language on one side and concepts related to printed language on the other side.Building blocks of literacy. Adapted from The Melissa Institute. © QUT Learning to read also involves developing strategies in all of the blocks in the image above, as well as discovering the pleasure of reading and reading for a purpose.

Oral language and phonological awareness play a key role in early childhood literacy development. Phonics knowledge is finite and can be learnt quickly, whereas comprehension and vocabulary knowledge continues to develop over a lifetime. This makes phonics learning easier to measure than comprehension and vocabulary development.

Over the past 50 years, academics, policymakers and education leaders have argued over whether we should, or should not, teach phonics. Rather than arguing whether phonics is necessary, research has shifted from ‘should we or shouldn’t we’ teach phonics, to what form of phonics should be taught, when, and how much.

There are a range of different ways you can teach phonics in your early years setting. The ‘best’ way to teach phonics is through teachers using their informed professional judgment about what’s needed for the children they’re teaching.

What is phonics?

Phonics is understanding the structure of oral language and its representation in written language. It’s a method for teaching children to read by helping them to connect sounds with letters or groups of letters. Phonics is just one part of learning to read.

Explaining phonemes

Phonemes are the smallest units of sound in oral language. The relationship between phonemes and letters is known as phoneme-grapheme correspondence – more commonly known as phonics.

Explaining phonological awareness

Phonological awareness is the ability to detect and manipulate the larger units of sound; for example, rhyme and syllables. Phonological awareness is important for children in the prior-to-school years. Research suggests it is easier to attend to larger units of sound, such as rhymes and counting syllables, than it is to attend to the smaller units of sound as in phonemic awareness.

Modais

Os verbos modais têm diferentes possibilidades. Não são fáceis de serem usados, pois necessitamos ter um entendimento desta possibilidade.

Eles podem variar de acordo com o tempo verbal ou a ênfase que se quer dar.

Por exemplo: habilidade, obrigação, permissão, sugestão, conselho, previsão, promessa, pedido, possibilidade ou decisão.

Veja alguns exemplos na imagem e entenda melhor sobre eles.